Jie He


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Instances and Labels: Hierarchy-aware Joint Supervised Contrastive Learning for Hierarchical Multi-Label Text Classification
Simon Chi Lok Yu | Jie He | Victor Basulto | Jeff Pan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Hierarchical multi-label text classification (HMTC) aims at utilizing a label hierarchy in multi-label classification. Recent approaches to HMTC deal with the problem of imposing an overconstrained premise on the output space by using contrastive learning on generated samples in a semi-supervised manner to bring text and label embeddings closer. However, the generation of samples tends to introduce noise as it ignores the correlation between similar samples in the same batch. One solution to this issue is supervised contrastive learning, but it remains an underexplored topic in HMTC due to its complex structured labels. To overcome this challenge, we propose **HJCL**, a **H**ierarchy-aware **J**oint Supervised **C**ontrastive **L**earning method that bridges the gap between supervised contrastive learning and HMTC. Specifically, we employ both instance-wise and label-wise contrastive learning techniques and carefully construct batches to fulfill the contrastive learning objective. Extensive experiments on four multi-path HMTC datasets demonstrate that HJCLachieves promising results and the effectiveness of Contrastive Learning on HMTC. Code and data are available at https://github.com/simonucl/HJCL.

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BUCA: A Binary Classification Approach to Unsupervised Commonsense Question Answering
Jie He | Simon U | Victor Gutierrez-Basulto | Jeff Pan
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Unsupervised commonsense reasoning (UCR) is becoming increasingly popular as the construction of commonsense reasoning datasets is expensive, and they are inevitably limited in their scope. A popular approach to UCR is to fine-tune language models with external knowledge (e.g., knowledge graphs), but this usually requires a large number of training examples. In this paper, we propose to transform the downstream multiple choice question answering task into a simpler binary classification task by ranking all candidate answers according to their reasonableness. To this end, for training the model, we convert the knowledge graph triples into reasonable and unreasonable texts. Extensive experimental results show the effectiveness of our approach on various multiple choice question answering benchmarks. Furthermore, compared with existing UCR approaches using KGs, ours is less data hungry.


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Evaluating Discourse Cohesion in Pre-trained Language Models
Jie He | Wanqiu Long | Deyi Xiong
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Computational Approaches to Discourse

Large pre-trained neural models have achieved remarkable success in natural language process (NLP), inspiring a growing body of research analyzing their ability from different aspects. In this paper, we propose a test suite to evaluate the cohesive ability of pre-trained language models. The test suite contains multiple cohesion phenomena between adjacent and non-adjacent sentences. We try to compare different pre-trained language models on these phenomena and analyze the experimental results,hoping more attention can be given to discourse cohesion in the future. The built discourse cohesion test suite will be publicly available at https://github.com/probe2/discourse_cohesion.


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TGEA: An Error-Annotated Dataset and Benchmark Tasks for TextGeneration from Pretrained Language Models
Jie He | Bo Peng | Yi Liao | Qun Liu | Deyi Xiong
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In order to deeply understand the capability of pretrained language models in text generation and conduct a diagnostic evaluation, we propose TGEA, an error-annotated dataset with multiple benchmark tasks for text generation from pretrained language models (PLMs). We use carefully selected prompt words to guide GPT-2 to generate candidate sentences, from which we select 47K for error annotation. Crowdsourced workers manually check each of these sentences and detect 12k erroneous sentences. We create an error taxonomy to cover 24 types of errors occurring in these erroneous sentences according to the nature of errors with respect to linguistics and knowledge (e.g., common sense). For each erroneous span in PLM-generated sentences, we also detect another span that is closely associated with it. Each error is hence manually labeled with comprehensive annotations, including the span of the error, the associated span, minimal correction to the error, the type of the error, and rationale behind the error. Apart from the fully annotated dataset, we also present a detailed description of the data collection procedure, statistics and analysis of the dataset. This is the first dataset with comprehensive annotations for PLM-generated texts, which facilitates the diagnostic evaluation of PLM-based text generation. Furthermore, we use TGEA as a benchmark dataset and propose a series of automatic diagnosis tasks, including error detection, error type classification, associated span detection, error rationale generation, to further promote future study on the automatic error detection and correction on texts generated by pretrained language models.


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The Box is in the Pen: Evaluating Commonsense Reasoning in Neural Machine Translation
Jie He | Tao Wang | Deyi Xiong | Qun Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Does neural machine translation yield translations that are congenial with common sense? In this paper, we present a test suite to evaluate the commonsense reasoning capability of neural machine translation. The test suite consists of three test sets, covering lexical and contextless/contextual syntactic ambiguity that requires commonsense knowledge to resolve. We manually create 1,200 triples, each of which contain a source sentence and two contrastive translations, involving 7 different common sense types. Language models pretrained on large-scale corpora, such as BERT, GPT-2, achieve a commonsense reasoning accuracy of lower than 72% on target translations of this test suite. We conduct extensive experiments on the test suite to evaluate commonsense reasoning in neural machine translation and investigate factors that have impact on this capability. Our experiments and analyses demonstrate that neural machine translation performs poorly on commonsense reasoning of the three ambiguity types in terms of both reasoning accuracy ( 6 60.1%) and reasoning consistency (6 31%). We will release our test suite as a machine translation commonsense reasoning testbed to promote future work in this direction.