Jieyu Zhao


pdf bib
SODAPOP: Open-Ended Discovery of Social Biases in Social Commonsense Reasoning Models
Haozhe An | Zongxia Li | Jieyu Zhao | Rachel Rudinger
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

A common limitation of diagnostic tests for detecting social biases in NLP models is that they may only detect stereotypic associations that are pre-specified by the designer of the test. Since enumerating all possible problematic associations is infeasible, it is likely these tests fail to detect biases that are present in a model but not pre-specified by the designer. To address this limitation, we propose SODAPOP (SOcial bias Discovery from Answers about PeOPle), an approach for automatic social bias discovery in social commonsense question-answering. The SODAPOP pipeline generates modified instances from the Social IQa dataset (Sap et al., 2019b) by (1) substituting names associated with different demographic groups, and (2) generating many distractor answers from a masked language model. By using a social commonsense model to score the generated distractors, we are able to uncover the model’s stereotypic associations between demographic groups and an open set of words. We also test SODAPOP on debiased models and show the limitations of multiple state-of-the-art debiasing algorithms.

pdf bib
Are Personalized Stochastic Parrots More Dangerous? Evaluating Persona Biases in Dialogue Systems
Yixin Wan | Jieyu Zhao | Aman Chadha | Nanyun Peng | Kai-Wei Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Recent advancements in Large Language Models empower them to follow freeform instructions, including imitating generic or specific demographic personas in conversations. We define generic personas to represent demographic groups, such as “an Asian person”, whereas specific personas may take the form of specific popular Asian names like “Yumi”. While the adoption of personas enriches user experiences by making dialogue systems more engaging and approachable, it also casts a shadow of potential risk by exacerbating social biases within model responses, thereby causing societal harm through interactions with users. In this paper, we systematically study “persona biases”, which we define to be the sensitivity of dialogue models’ harmful behaviors contingent upon the personas they adopt. We categorize persona biases into biases in harmful expression and harmful agreement, and establish a comprehensive evaluation framework to measure persona biases in five aspects: Offensiveness, Toxic Continuation, Regard, Stereotype Agreement, and Toxic Agreement. Additionally, we propose to investigate persona biases by experimenting with UNIVERSALPERSONA, a systematically constructed persona dataset encompassing various types of both generic and specific model personas. Through benchmarking on four different models- including Blender, ChatGPT, Alpaca, and Vicuna- our study uncovers significant persona biases in dialogue systems. Our findings also underscore the pressing need to revisit the use of personas in dialogue agents to ensure safe application.

pdf bib
A Rose by Any Other Name would not Smell as Sweet: Social Bias in Names Mistranslation
Sandra Sandoval | Jieyu Zhao | Marine Carpuat | Hal Daumé III
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We ask the question: Are there widespread disparities in machine translations of names across race/ethnicity, and gender? We hypothesize that the translation quality of names and surrounding context will be lower for names associated with US racial and ethnic minorities due to these systems’ tendencies to standardize language to predominant language patterns. We develop a dataset of names that are strongly demographically aligned and propose a translation evaluation procedure based on round-trip translation. We analyze the effect of name demographics on translation quality using generalized linear mixed effects models and find that the ability of translation systems to correctly translate female-associated names is significantly lower than male-associated names. This effect is particularly pronounced for female-associated names that are also associated with racial (Black) and ethnic (Hispanic) minorities. This disparity in translation quality between social groups for something as personal as someone’s name has significant implications for people’s professional, personal, and cultural identities, self-worth and ease of communication. Our findings suggest that more MT research is needed to improve the translation of names and to provide high-quality service for users regardless of gender, race, and ethnicity.

pdf bib
Does BERT Exacerbate Gender or L1 Biases in Automated English Speaking Assessment?
Alexander Kwako | Yixin Wan | Jieyu Zhao | Mark Hansen | Kai-Wei Chang | Li Cai
Proceedings of the 18th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications (BEA 2023)

In English speaking assessment, pretrained large language models (LLMs) such as BERT can score constructed response items as accurately as human raters. Less research has investigated whether LLMs perpetuate or exacerbate biases, which would pose problems for the fairness and validity of the test. This study examines gender and native language (L1) biases in human and automated scores, using an off-the-shelf (OOS) BERT model. Analyses focus on a specific type of bias known as differential item functioning (DIF), which compares examinees of similar English language proficiency. Results show that there is a moderate amount of DIF, based on examinees’ L1 background in grade band 912. DIF is higher when scored by an OOS BERT model, indicating that BERT may exacerbate this bias; however, in practical terms, the degree to which BERT exacerbates DIF is very small. Additionally, there is more DIF for longer speaking items and for older examinees, but BERT does not exacerbate these patterns of DIF.


pdf bib
Using Item Response Theory to Measure Gender and Racial Bias of a BERT-based Automated English Speech Assessment System
Alexander Kwako | Yixin Wan | Jieyu Zhao | Kai-Wei Chang | Li Cai | Mark Hansen
Proceedings of the 17th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications (BEA 2022)

Recent advances in natural language processing and transformer-based models have made it easier to implement accurate, automated English speech assessments. Yet, without careful examination, applications of these models may exacerbate social prejudices based on gender and race. This study addresses the need to examine potential biases of transformer-based models in the context of automated English speech assessment. For this purpose, we developed a BERT-based automated speech assessment system and investigated gender and racial bias of examinees’ automated scores. Gender and racial bias was measured by examining differential item functioning (DIF) using an item response theory framework. Preliminary results, which focused on a single verbal-response item, showed no statistically significant DIF based on gender or race for automated scores.

pdf bib
On Measures of Biases and Harms in NLP
Sunipa Dev | Emily Sheng | Jieyu Zhao | Aubrie Amstutz | Jiao Sun | Yu Hou | Mattie Sanseverino | Jiin Kim | Akihiro Nishi | Nanyun Peng | Kai-Wei Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: AACL-IJCNLP 2022

Recent studies show that Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies propagate societal biases about demographic groups associated with attributes such as gender, race, and nationality. To create interventions and mitigate these biases and associated harms, it is vital to be able to detect and measure such biases. While existing works propose bias evaluation and mitigation methods for various tasks, there remains a need to cohesively understand the biases and the specific harms they measure, and how different measures compare with each other. To address this gap, this work presents a practical framework of harms and a series of questions that practitioners can answer to guide the development of bias measures. As a validation of our framework and documentation questions, we also present several case studies of how existing bias measures in NLP—both intrinsic measures of bias in representations and extrinsic measures of bias of downstream applications—can be aligned with different harms and how our proposed documentation questions facilitates more holistic understanding of what bias measures are measuring.

pdf bib
Investigating Ensemble Methods for Model Robustness Improvement of Text Classifiers
Jieyu Zhao | Xuezhi Wang | Yao Qin | Jilin Chen | Kai-Wei Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Large pre-trained language models have shown remarkable performance over the past few years. These models, however, sometimes learn superficial features from the dataset and cannot generalize to the distributions that are dissimilar to the training scenario. There have been several approaches proposed to reduce model’s reliance on these bias features which can improve model robustness in the out-of-distribution setting. However, existing methods usually use a fixed low-capacity model to deal with various bias features, which ignore the learnability of those features. In this paper, we analyze a set of existing bias features and demonstrate there is no single model that works best for all the cases. We further show that by choosing an appropriate bias model, we can obtain a better robustness result than baselines with a more sophisticated model design.

pdf bib
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on NLP for Positive Impact (NLP4PI)
Laura Biester | Dorottya Demszky | Zhijing Jin | Mrinmaya Sachan | Joel Tetreault | Steven Wilson | Lu Xiao | Jieyu Zhao
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on NLP for Positive Impact (NLP4PI)


pdf bib
Double Perturbation: On the Robustness of Robustness and Counterfactual Bias Evaluation
Chong Zhang | Jieyu Zhao | Huan Zhang | Kai-Wei Chang | Cho-Jui Hsieh
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Robustness and counterfactual bias are usually evaluated on a test dataset. However, are these evaluations robust? If the test dataset is perturbed slightly, will the evaluation results keep the same? In this paper, we propose a “double perturbation” framework to uncover model weaknesses beyond the test dataset. The framework first perturbs the test dataset to construct abundant natural sentences similar to the test data, and then diagnoses the prediction change regarding a single-word substitution. We apply this framework to study two perturbation-based approaches that are used to analyze models’ robustness and counterfactual bias in English. (1) For robustness, we focus on synonym substitutions and identify vulnerable examples where prediction can be altered. Our proposed attack attains high success rates (96.0%-99.8%) in finding vulnerable examples on both original and robustly trained CNNs and Transformers. (2) For counterfactual bias, we focus on substituting demographic tokens (e.g., gender, race) and measure the shift of the expected prediction among constructed sentences. Our method is able to reveal the hidden model biases not directly shown in the test dataset. Our code is available at https://github.com/chong-z/nlp-second-order-attack.

pdf bib
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for Positive Impact
Anjalie Field | Shrimai Prabhumoye | Maarten Sap | Zhijing Jin | Jieyu Zhao | Chris Brockett
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for Positive Impact

pdf bib
Ethical-Advice Taker: Do Language Models Understand Natural Language Interventions?
Jieyu Zhao | Daniel Khashabi | Tushar Khot | Ashish Sabharwal | Kai-Wei Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


pdf bib
“The Boating Store Had Its Best Sail Ever”: Pronunciation-attentive Contextualized Pun Recognition
Yichao Zhou | Jyun-Yu Jiang | Jieyu Zhao | Kai-Wei Chang | Wei Wang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Humor plays an important role in human languages and it is essential to model humor when building intelligence systems. Among different forms of humor, puns perform wordplay for humorous effects by employing words with double entendre and high phonetic similarity. However, identifying and modeling puns are challenging as puns usually involved implicit semantic or phonological tricks. In this paper, we propose Pronunciation-attentive Contextualized Pun Recognition (PCPR) to perceive human humor, detect if a sentence contains puns and locate them in the sentence. PCPR derives contextualized representation for each word in a sentence by capturing the association between the surrounding context and its corresponding phonetic symbols. Extensive experiments are conducted on two benchmark datasets. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in pun detection and location tasks. In-depth analyses verify the effectiveness and robustness of PCPR.

pdf bib
Gender Bias in Multilingual Embeddings and Cross-Lingual Transfer
Jieyu Zhao | Subhabrata Mukherjee | Saghar Hosseini | Kai-Wei Chang | Ahmed Hassan Awadallah
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Multilingual representations embed words from many languages into a single semantic space such that words with similar meanings are close to each other regardless of the language. These embeddings have been widely used in various settings, such as cross-lingual transfer, where a natural language processing (NLP) model trained on one language is deployed to another language. While the cross-lingual transfer techniques are powerful, they carry gender bias from the source to target languages. In this paper, we study gender bias in multilingual embeddings and how it affects transfer learning for NLP applications. We create a multilingual dataset for bias analysis and propose several ways for quantifying bias in multilingual representations from both the intrinsic and extrinsic perspectives. Experimental results show that the magnitude of bias in the multilingual representations changes differently when we align the embeddings to different target spaces and that the alignment direction can also have an influence on the bias in transfer learning. We further provide recommendations for using the multilingual word representations for downstream tasks.

pdf bib
Mitigating Gender Bias Amplification in Distribution by Posterior Regularization
Shengyu Jia | Tao Meng | Jieyu Zhao | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Advanced machine learning techniques have boosted the performance of natural language processing. Nevertheless, recent studies, e.g., (CITATION) show that these techniques inadvertently capture the societal bias hidden in the corpus and further amplify it. However, their analysis is conducted only on models’ top predictions. In this paper, we investigate the gender bias amplification issue from the distribution perspective and demonstrate that the bias is amplified in the view of predicted probability distribution over labels. We further propose a bias mitigation approach based on posterior regularization. With little performance loss, our method can almost remove the bias amplification in the distribution. Our study sheds the light on understanding the bias amplification.

pdf bib
Towards Understanding Gender Bias in Relation Extraction
Andrew Gaut | Tony Sun | Shirlyn Tang | Yuxin Huang | Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Jieyu Zhao | Diba Mirza | Elizabeth Belding | Kai-Wei Chang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recent developments in Neural Relation Extraction (NRE) have made significant strides towards Automated Knowledge Base Construction. While much attention has been dedicated towards improvements in accuracy, there have been no attempts in the literature to evaluate social biases exhibited in NRE systems. In this paper, we create WikiGenderBias, a distantly supervised dataset composed of over 45,000 sentences including a 10% human annotated test set for the purpose of analyzing gender bias in relation extraction systems. We find that when extracting spouse-of and hypernym (i.e., occupation) relations, an NRE system performs differently when the gender of the target entity is different. However, such disparity does not appear when extracting relations such as birthDate or birthPlace. We also analyze how existing bias mitigation techniques, such as name anonymization, word embedding debiasing, and data augmentation affect the NRE system in terms of maintaining the test performance and reducing biases. Unfortunately, due to NRE models rely heavily on surface level cues, we find that existing bias mitigation approaches have a negative effect on NRE. Our analysis lays groundwork for future quantifying and mitigating bias in NRE.

pdf bib
LOGAN: Local Group Bias Detection by Clustering
Jieyu Zhao | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Machine learning techniques have been widely used in natural language processing (NLP). However, as revealed by many recent studies, machine learning models often inherit and amplify the societal biases in data. Various metrics have been proposed to quantify biases in model predictions. In particular, several of them evaluate disparity in model performance between protected groups and advantaged groups in the test corpus. However, we argue that evaluating bias at the corpus level is not enough for understanding how biases are embedded in a model. In fact, a model with similar aggregated performance between different groups on the entire data may behave differently on instances in a local region. To analyze and detect such local bias, we propose LOGAN, a new bias detection technique based on clustering. Experiments on toxicity classification and object classification tasks show that LOGAN identifies bias in a local region and allows us to better analyze the biases in model predictions.


pdf bib
Mitigating Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing: Literature Review
Tony Sun | Andrew Gaut | Shirlyn Tang | Yuxin Huang | Mai ElSherief | Jieyu Zhao | Diba Mirza | Elizabeth Belding | Kai-Wei Chang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

As Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML) tools rise in popularity, it becomes increasingly vital to recognize the role they play in shaping societal biases and stereotypes. Although NLP models have shown success in modeling various applications, they propagate and may even amplify gender bias found in text corpora. While the study of bias in artificial intelligence is not new, methods to mitigate gender bias in NLP are relatively nascent. In this paper, we review contemporary studies on recognizing and mitigating gender bias in NLP. We discuss gender bias based on four forms of representation bias and analyze methods recognizing gender bias. Furthermore, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of existing gender debiasing methods. Finally, we discuss future studies for recognizing and mitigating gender bias in NLP.

pdf bib
Examining Gender Bias in Languages with Grammatical Gender
Pei Zhou | Weijia Shi | Jieyu Zhao | Kuan-Hao Huang | Muhao Chen | Ryan Cotterell | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recent studies have shown that word embeddings exhibit gender bias inherited from the training corpora. However, most studies to date have focused on quantifying and mitigating such bias only in English. These analyses cannot be directly extended to languages that exhibit morphological agreement on gender, such as Spanish and French. In this paper, we propose new metrics for evaluating gender bias in word embeddings of these languages and further demonstrate evidence of gender bias in bilingual embeddings which align these languages with English. Finally, we extend an existing approach to mitigate gender bias in word embedding of these languages under both monolingual and bilingual settings. Experiments on modified Word Embedding Association Test, word similarity, word translation, and word pair translation tasks show that the proposed approaches can effectively reduce the gender bias while preserving the utility of the original embeddings.

pdf bib
Gender Bias in Contextualized Word Embeddings
Jieyu Zhao | Tianlu Wang | Mark Yatskar | Ryan Cotterell | Vicente Ordonez | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

In this paper, we quantify, analyze and mitigate gender bias exhibited in ELMo’s contextualized word vectors. First, we conduct several intrinsic analyses and find that (1) training data for ELMo contains significantly more male than female entities, (2) the trained ELMo embeddings systematically encode gender information and (3) ELMo unequally encodes gender information about male and female entities. Then, we show that a state-of-the-art coreference system that depends on ELMo inherits its bias and demonstrates significant bias on the WinoBias probing corpus. Finally, we explore two methods to mitigate such gender bias and show that the bias demonstrated on WinoBias can be eliminated.


pdf bib
Learning Gender-Neutral Word Embeddings
Jieyu Zhao | Yichao Zhou | Zeyu Li | Wei Wang | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Word embedding models have become a fundamental component in a wide range of Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications. However, embeddings trained on human-generated corpora have been demonstrated to inherit strong gender stereotypes that reflect social constructs. To address this concern, in this paper, we propose a novel training procedure for learning gender-neutral word embeddings. Our approach aims to preserve gender information in certain dimensions of word vectors while compelling other dimensions to be free of gender influence. Based on the proposed method, we generate a Gender-Neutral variant of GloVe (GN-GloVe). Quantitative and qualitative experiments demonstrate that GN-GloVe successfully isolates gender information without sacrificing the functionality of the embedding model.

pdf bib
Gender Bias in Coreference Resolution: Evaluation and Debiasing Methods
Jieyu Zhao | Tianlu Wang | Mark Yatskar | Vicente Ordonez | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

In this paper, we introduce a new benchmark for co-reference resolution focused on gender bias, WinoBias. Our corpus contains Winograd-schema style sentences with entities corresponding to people referred by their occupation (e.g. the nurse, the doctor, the carpenter). We demonstrate that a rule-based, a feature-rich, and a neural coreference system all link gendered pronouns to pro-stereotypical entities with higher accuracy than anti-stereotypical entities, by an average difference of 21.1 in F1 score. Finally, we demonstrate a data-augmentation approach that, in combination with existing word-embedding debiasing techniques, removes the bias demonstrated by these systems in WinoBias without significantly affecting their performance on existing datasets.


pdf bib
Men Also Like Shopping: Reducing Gender Bias Amplification using Corpus-level Constraints
Jieyu Zhao | Tianlu Wang | Mark Yatskar | Vicente Ordonez | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Language is increasingly being used to de-fine rich visual recognition problems with supporting image collections sourced from the web. Structured prediction models are used in these tasks to take advantage of correlations between co-occurring labels and visual input but risk inadvertently encoding social biases found in web corpora. In this work, we study data and models associated with multilabel object classification and visual semantic role labeling. We find that (a) datasets for these tasks contain significant gender bias and (b) models trained on these datasets further amplify existing bias. For example, the activity cooking is over 33% more likely to involve females than males in a training set, and a trained model further amplifies the disparity to 68% at test time. We propose to inject corpus-level constraints for calibrating existing structured prediction models and design an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation for collective inference. Our method results in almost no performance loss for the underlying recognition task but decreases the magnitude of bias amplification by 47.5% and 40.5% for multilabel classification and visual semantic role labeling, respectively。