Jing Li


2022

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Prompt-Driven Neural Machine Translation
Yafu Li | Yongjing Yin | Jing Li | Yue Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Neural machine translation (NMT) has obtained significant performance improvement over the recent years. However, NMT models still face various challenges including fragility and lack of style flexibility. Moreover, current methods for instance-level constraints are limited in that they are either constraint-specific or model-specific. To this end, we propose prompt-driven neural machine translation to incorporate prompts for enhancing translation control and enriching flexibility. Empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in both prompt responding and translation quality. Through human evaluation, we further show the flexibility of prompt control and the efficiency in human-in-the-loop translation.

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A Dual-Channel Framework for Sarcasm Recognition by Detecting Sentiment Conflict
Yiyi Liu | Yequan Wang | Aixin Sun | Xuying Meng | Jing Li | Jiafeng Guo
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Sarcasm employs ambivalence, where one says something positive but actually means negative, and vice versa. The essence of sarcasm, which is also a sufficient and necessary condition, is the conflict between literal and implied sentiments expressed in one sentence. However, it is difficult to recognize such sentiment conflict because the sentiments are mixed or even implicit. As a result, the recognition of sophisticated and obscure sentiment brings in a great challenge to sarcasm detection. In this paper, we propose a Dual-Channel Framework by modeling both literal and implied sentiments separately. Based on this dual-channel framework, we design the Dual-Channel Network (DC-Net) to recognize sentiment conflict. Experiments on political debates (i.e. IAC-V1 and IAC-V2) and Twitter datasets show that our proposed DC-Net achieves state-of-the-art performance on sarcasm recognition. Our code is released to support research.

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Analyzing the Intensity of Complaints on Social Media
Ming Fang | Shi Zong | Jing Li | Xinyu Dai | Shujian Huang | Jiajun Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Complaining is a speech act that expresses a negative inconsistency between reality and human’s expectations. While prior studies mostly focus on identifying the existence or the type of complaints, in this work, we present the first study in computational linguistics of measuring the intensity of complaints from text. Analyzing complaints from such perspective is particularly useful, as complaints of certain degrees may cause severe consequences for companies or organizations. We first collect 3,103 posts about complaints in education domain from Weibo, a popular Chinese social media platform. These posts are then annotated with complaints intensity scores using Best-Worst Scaling (BWS) method. We show that complaints intensity can be accurately estimated by computational models with best mean square error achieving 0.11. Furthermore, we conduct a comprehensive linguistic analysis around complaints, including the connections between complaints and sentiment, and a cross-lingual comparison for complaints expressions used by Chinese and English speakers. We finally show that our complaints intensity scores can be incorporated for better estimating the popularity of posts on social media.

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An Efficient Coarse-to-Fine Facet-Aware Unsupervised Summarization Framework Based on Semantic Blocks
Xinnian Liang | Jing Li | Shuangzhi Wu | Jiali Zeng | Yufan Jiang | Mu Li | Zhoujun Li
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Unsupervised summarization methods have achieved remarkable results by incorporating representations from pre-trained language models. However, existing methods fail to consider efficiency and effectiveness at the same time when the input document is extremely long. To tackle this problem, in this paper, we proposed an efficient Coarse-to-Fine Facet-Aware Ranking (C2F-FAR) framework for unsupervised long document summarization, which is based on the semantic block. The semantic block refers to continuous sentences in the document that describe the same facet. Specifically, we address this problem by converting the one-step ranking method into the hierarchical multi-granularity two-stage ranking. In the coarse-level stage, we proposed a new segment algorithm to split the document into facet-aware semantic blocks and then filter insignificant blocks. In the fine-level stage, we select salient sentences in each block and then extract the final summary from selected sentences. We evaluate our framework on four long document summarization datasets: Gov-Report, BillSum, arXiv, and PubMed. Our C2F-FAR can achieve new state-of-the-art unsupervised summarization results on Gov-Report and BillSum. In addition, our method speeds up 4-28 times more than previous methods.

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TVShowGuess: Character Comprehension in Stories as Speaker Guessing
Yisi Sang | Xiangyang Mou | Mo Yu | Shunyu Yao | Jing Li | Jeffrey Stanton
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We propose a new task for assessing machines’ skills of understanding fictional characters in narrative stories. The task, TVShowGuess, builds on the scripts of TV series and takes the form of guessing the anonymous main characters based on the backgrounds of the scenes and the dialogues. Our human study supports that this form of task covers comprehension of multiple types of character persona, including understanding characters’ personalities, facts and memories of personal experience, which are well aligned with the psychological and literary theories about the theory of mind (ToM) of human beings on understanding fictional characters during reading. We further propose new model architectures to support the contextualized encoding of long scene texts. Experiments show that our proposed approaches significantly outperform baselines, yet still largely lag behind the (nearly perfect) human performance.Our work serves as a first step toward the goal of narrative character comprehension.

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When Cantonese NLP Meets Pre-training: Progress and Challenges
Rong Xiang | Hanzhuo Tan | Jing Li | Mingyu Wan | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts

Cantonese is an influential Chinese variant with a large population of speakers worldwide. However, it is under-resourced in terms of the data scale and diversity, excluding Cantonese Natural Language Processing (NLP) from the stateof-the-art (SOTA) “pre-training and fine-tuning” paradigm. This tutorial will start with a substantially review of the linguistics and NLP progress for shaping language specificity, resources, and methodologies. It will be followed by an introduction to the trendy transformerbased pre-training methods, which have been largely advancing the SOTA performance of a wide range of downstream NLP tasks in numerous majority languages (e.g., English and Chinese). Based on the above, we will present the main challenges for Cantonese NLP in relation to Cantonese language idiosyncrasies of colloquialism and multilingualism, followed by the future directions to line NLP for Cantonese and other low-resource languages up to the cutting-edge pre-training practice.

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Doctor Recommendation in Online Health Forums via Expertise Learning
Xiaoxin Lu | Yubo Zhang | Jing Li | Shi Zong
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Huge volumes of patient queries are daily generated on online health forums, rendering manual doctor allocation a labor-intensive task. To better help patients, this paper studies a novel task of doctor recommendation to enable automatic pairing of a patient to a doctor with relevant expertise. While most prior work in recommendation focuses on modeling target users from their past behavior, we can only rely on the limited words in a query to infer a patient’s needs for privacy reasons. For doctor modeling, we study the joint effects of their profiles and previous dialogues with other patients and explore their interactions via self-learning. The learned doctor embeddings are further employed to estimate their capabilities of handling a patient query with a multi-head attention mechanism. For experiments, a large-scale dataset is collected from Chunyu Yisheng, a Chinese online health forum, where our model exhibits the state-of-the-art results, outperforming baselines only consider profiles and past dialogues to characterize a doctor.

2021

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#HowYouTagTweets: Learning User Hashtagging Preferences via Personalized Topic Attention
Yuji Zhang | Yubo Zhang | Chunpu Xu | Jing Li | Ziyan Jiang | Baolin Peng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Millions of hashtags are created on social media every day to cross-refer messages concerning similar topics. To help people find the topics they want to discuss, this paper characterizes a user’s hashtagging preferences via predicting how likely they will post with a hashtag. It is hypothesized that one’s interests in a hashtag are related with what they said before (user history) and the existing posts present the hashtag (hashtag contexts). These factors are married in the deep semantic space built with a pre-trained BERT and a neural topic model via multitask learning. In this way, user interests learned from the past can be customized to match future hashtags, which is beyond the capability of existing methods assuming unchanged hashtag semantics. Furthermore, we propose a novel personalized topic attention to capture salient contents to personalize hashtag contexts. Experiments on a large-scale Twitter dataset show that our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art recommendation approach without exploiting latent topics.

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MLEC-QA: A Chinese Multi-Choice Biomedical Question Answering Dataset
Jing Li | Shangping Zhong | Kaizhi Chen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Question Answering (QA) has been successfully applied in scenarios of human-computer interaction such as chatbots and search engines. However, for the specific biomedical domain, QA systems are still immature due to expert-annotated datasets being limited by category and scale. In this paper, we present MLEC-QA, the largest-scale Chinese multi-choice biomedical QA dataset, collected from the National Medical Licensing Examination in China. The dataset is composed of five subsets with 136,236 biomedical multi-choice questions with extra materials (images or tables) annotated by human experts, and first covers the following biomedical sub-fields: Clinic, Stomatology, Public Health, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Combined with Western Medicine. We implement eight representative control methods and open-domain QA methods as baselines. Experimental results demonstrate that even the current best model can only achieve accuracies between 40% to 55% on five subsets, especially performing poorly on questions that require sophisticated reasoning ability. We hope the release of the MLEC-QA dataset can serve as a valuable resource for research and evaluation in open-domain QA, and also make advances for biomedical QA systems.

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基于人物特征增强的拟人句要素抽取方法研究(Research on Element Extraction of Personified Sentences Based on Enhanced Characters)
Jing Li (李婧) | Suge Wang (王素格) | Xin Chen (陈鑫) | Dian Wang (王典)
Proceedings of the 20th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

在散文阅读理解的鉴赏类问题中,对拟人句赏析考查比较频繁。目前,已有的工作仅对拟人句中的本体要素进行识别并抽取,存在要素抽取不完整的问题,尤其是当句子中出现多个本体时,需要确定拟人词与各个本体的对应关系。为解决这些问题,本文提出了基于人物特征增强的拟人句要素抽取方法。该方法利用特定领域的特征,增强句子的向量表示,再利用条件随机场模型对拟人句中的本体和拟人词要素进行识别。在此基础上,利用自注意力机制对要素之间的关系进行检测,使用要素同步机制和关系同步机制进行信息交互,用于要素识别和关系检测的输入更新。在自建的拟人数据集上进行<本体,拟人词>抽取的比较实验,结果表明本文提出的模型性能优于其他比较模型。

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Engage the Public: Poll Question Generation for Social Media Posts
Zexin Lu | Keyang Ding | Yuji Zhang | Jing Li | Baolin Peng | Lemao Liu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

This paper presents a novel task to generate poll questions for social media posts. It offers an easy way to hear the voice from the public and learn from their feelings to important social topics. While most related work tackles formal languages (e.g., exam papers), we generate poll questions for short and colloquial social media messages exhibiting severe data sparsity. To deal with that, we propose to encode user comments and discover latent topics therein as contexts. They are then incorporated into a sequence-to-sequence (S2S) architecture for question generation and its extension with dual decoders to additionally yield poll choices (answers). For experiments, we collect a large-scale Chinese dataset from Sina Weibo containing over 20K polls. The results show that our model outperforms the popular S2S models without exploiting topics from comments and the dual decoder design can further benefit the prediction of both questions and answers. Human evaluations further exhibit our superiority in yielding high-quality polls helpful to draw user engagements.

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On the Transformer Growth for Progressive BERT Training
Xiaotao Gu | Liyuan Liu | Hongkun Yu | Jing Li | Chen Chen | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

As the excessive pre-training cost arouses the need to improve efficiency, considerable efforts have been made to train BERT progressively–start from an inferior but low-cost model and gradually increase the computational complexity. Our objective is to help advance the understanding of such Transformer growth and discover principles that guide progressive training. First, we find that similar to network architecture selection, Transformer growth also favors compound scaling. Specifically, while existing methods only conduct network growth in a single dimension, we observe that it is beneficial to use compound growth operators and balance multiple dimensions (e.g., depth, width, and input length of the model). Moreover, we explore alternative growth operators in each dimension via controlled comparison to give practical guidance for operator selection. In light of our analyses, the proposed method CompoundGrow speeds up BERT pre-training by 73.6% and 82.2% for the base and large models respectively while achieving comparable performances.

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Discrete Argument Representation Learning for Interactive Argument Pair Identification
Lu Ji | Zhongyu Wei | Jing Li | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In this paper, we focus on identifying interactive argument pairs from two posts with opposite stances to a certain topic. Considering opinions are exchanged from different perspectives of the discussing topic, we study the discrete representations for arguments to capture varying aspects in argumentation languages (e.g., the debate focus and the participant behavior). Moreover, we utilize hierarchical structure to model post-wise information incorporating contextual knowledge. Experimental results on the large-scale dataset collected from CMV show that our proposed framework can significantly outperform the competitive baselines. Further analyses reveal why our model yields superior performance and prove the usefulness of our learned representations.

2020

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Dynamic Online Conversation Recommendation
Xingshan Zeng | Jing Li | Lu Wang | Zhiming Mao | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Trending topics in social media content evolve over time, and it is therefore crucial to understand social media users and their interpersonal communications in a dynamic manner. Here we study dynamic online conversation recommendation, to help users engage in conversations that satisfy their evolving interests. While most prior work assumes static user interests, our model is able to capture the temporal aspects of user interests, and further handle future conversations that are unseen during training time. Concretely, we propose a neural architecture to exploit changes of user interactions and interests over time, to predict which discussions they are likely to enter. We conduct experiments on large-scale collections of Reddit conversations, and results on three subreddits show that our model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models that make a static assumption of user interests. We further evaluate on handling “cold start”, and observe consistently better performance by our model when considering various degrees of sparsity of user’s chatting history and conversation contexts. Lastly, analyses on our model outputs indicate user interest change, explaining the advantage and efficacy of our approach.

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Modeling Evolution of Message Interaction for Rumor Resolution
Lei Chen | Zhongyu Wei | Jing Li | Baohua Zhou | Qi Zhang | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Previous work for rumor resolution concentrates on exploiting time-series characteristics or modeling topology structure separately. However, how local interactive pattern affects global information assemblage has not been explored. In this paper, we attempt to address the problem by learning evolution of message interaction. We model confrontation and reciprocity between message pairs via discrete variational autoencoders which effectively reflects the diversified opinion interactivity. Moreover, we capture the variation of message interaction using a hierarchical framework to better integrate information flow of a rumor cascade. Experiments on PHEME dataset demonstrate our proposed model achieves higher accuracy than existing methods.

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Hashtags, Emotions, and Comments: A Large-Scale Dataset to Understand Fine-Grained Social Emotions to Online Topics
Keyang Ding | Jing Li | Yuji Zhang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

This paper studies social emotions to online discussion topics. While most prior work focus on emotions from writers, we investigate readers’ responses and explore the public feelings to an online topic. A large-scale dataset is collected from Chinese microblog Sina Weibo with over 13 thousand trending topics, emotion votes in 24 fine-grained types from massive participants, and user comments to allow context understanding. In experiments, we examine baseline performance to predict a topic’s possible social emotions in a multilabel classification setting. The results show that a seq2seq model with user comment modeling performs the best, even surpassing human prediction. More analyses shed light on the effects of emotion types, topic description lengths, contexts from user comments, and the limited capacity of the existing models.

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Cross-Media Keyphrase Prediction: A Unified Framework with Multi-Modality Multi-Head Attention and Image Wordings
Yue Wang | Jing Li | Michael Lyu | Irwin King
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Social media produces large amounts of contents every day. To help users quickly capture what they need, keyphrase prediction is receiving a growing attention. Nevertheless, most prior efforts focus on text modeling, largely ignoring the rich features embedded in the matching images. In this work, we explore the joint effects of texts and images in predicting the keyphrases for a multimedia post. To better align social media style texts and images, we propose: (1) a novel Multi-Modality MultiHead Attention (M3H-Att) to capture the intricate cross-media interactions; (2) image wordings, in forms of optical characters and image attributes, to bridge the two modalities. Moreover, we design a unified framework to leverage the outputs of keyphrase classification and generation and couple their advantages. Extensive experiments on a large-scale dataset newly collected from Twitter show that our model significantly outperforms the previous state of the art based on traditional attention mechanisms. Further analyses show that our multi-head attention is able to attend information from various aspects and boost classification or generation in diverse scenarios.

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Continuity of Topic, Interaction, and Query: Learning to Quote in Online Conversations
Lingzhi Wang | Jing Li | Xingshan Zeng | Haisong Zhang | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Quotations are crucial for successful explanations and persuasions in interpersonal communications. However, finding what to quote in a conversation is challenging for both humans and machines. This work studies automatic quotation generation in an online conversation and explores how language consistency affects whether a quotation fits the given context. Here, we capture the contextual consistency of a quotation in terms of latent topics, interactions with the dialogue history, and coherence to the query turn’s existing contents. Further, an encoder-decoder neural framework is employed to continue the context with a quotation via language generation. Experiment results on two large-scale datasets in English and Chinese demonstrate that our quotation generation model outperforms the state-of-the-art models. Further analysis shows that topic, interaction, and query consistency are all helpful to learn how to quote in online conversations.

2019

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Subtopic-driven Multi-Document Summarization
Xin Zheng | Aixin Sun | Jing Li | Karthik Muthuswamy
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In multi-document summarization, a set of documents to be summarized is assumed to be on the same topic, known as the underlying topic in this paper. That is, the underlying topic can be collectively represented by all the documents in the set. Meanwhile, different documents may cover various different subtopics and the same subtopic can be across several documents. Inspired by topic model, the underlying topic of a document set can also be viewed as a collection of different subtopics of different importance. In this paper, we propose a summarization model called STDS. The model generates the underlying topic representation from both document view and subtopic view in parallel. The learning objective is to minimize the distance between the representations learned from the two views. The contextual information is encoded through a hierarchical RNN architecture. Sentence salience is estimated in a hierarchical way with subtopic salience and relative sentence salience, by considering the contextual information. Top ranked sentences are then extracted as a summary. Note that the notion of subtopic enables us to bring in additional information (e.g. comments to news articles) that is helpful for document summarization. Experimental results show that the proposed solution outperforms state-of-the-art methods on benchmark datasets.

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Coupling Global and Local Context for Unsupervised Aspect Extraction
Ming Liao | Jing Li | Haisong Zhang | Lingzhi Wang | Xixin Wu | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Aspect words, indicating opinion targets, are essential in expressing and understanding human opinions. To identify aspects, most previous efforts focus on using sequence tagging models trained on human-annotated data. This work studies unsupervised aspect extraction and explores how words appear in global context (on sentence level) and local context (conveyed by neighboring words). We propose a novel neural model, capable of coupling global and local representation to discover aspect words. Experimental results on two benchmarks, laptop and restaurant reviews, show that our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art models from previous studies evaluated with varying metrics. Analysis on model output show our ability to learn meaningful and coherent aspect representations. We further investigate how words distribute in global and local context, and find that aspect and non-aspect words do exhibit different context, interpreting our superiority in unsupervised aspect extraction.

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Neural Conversation Recommendation with Online Interaction Modeling
Xingshan Zeng | Jing Li | Lu Wang | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

The prevalent use of social media leads to a vast amount of online conversations being produced on a daily basis. It presents a concrete challenge for individuals to better discover and engage in social media discussions. In this paper, we present a novel framework to automatically recommend conversations to users based on their prior conversation behaviors. Built on neural collaborative filtering, our model explores deep semantic features that measure how a user’s preferences match an ongoing conversation’s context. Furthermore, to identify salient characteristics from interleaving user interactions, our model incorporates graph-structured networks, where both replying relations and temporal features are encoded as conversation context. Experimental results on two large-scale datasets collected from Twitter and Reddit show that our model yields better performance than previous state-of-the-art models, which only utilize lexical features and ignore past user interactions in the conversations.

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What You Say and How You Say it: Joint Modeling of Topics and Discourse in Microblog Conversations
Jichuan Zeng | Jing Li | Yulan He | Cuiyun Gao | Michael R. Lyu | Irwin King
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 7

This paper presents an unsupervised framework for jointly modeling topic content and discourse behavior in microblog conversations. Concretely, we propose a neural model to discover word clusters indicating what a conversation concerns (i.e., topics) and those reflecting how participants voice their opinions (i.e., discourse).1 Extensive experiments show that our model can yield both coherent topics and meaningful discourse behavior. Further study shows that our topic and discourse representations can benefit the classification of microblog messages, especially when they are jointly trained with the classifier.Our data sets and code are available at: http://github.com/zengjichuan/Topic_Disc.

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Microblog Hashtag Generation via Encoding Conversation Contexts
Yue Wang | Jing Li | Irwin King | Michael R. Lyu | Shuming Shi
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Automatic hashtag annotation plays an important role in content understanding for microblog posts. To date, progress made in this field has been restricted to phrase selection from limited candidates, or word-level hashtag discovery using topic models. Different from previous work considering hashtags to be inseparable, our work is the first effort to annotate hashtags with a novel sequence generation framework via viewing the hashtag as a short sequence of words. Moreover, to address the data sparsity issue in processing short microblog posts, we propose to jointly model the target posts and the conversation contexts initiated by them with bidirectional attention. Extensive experimental results on two large-scale datasets, newly collected from English Twitter and Chinese Weibo, show that our model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models based on classification. Further studies demonstrate our ability to effectively generate rare and even unseen hashtags, which is however not possible for most existing methods.

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Topic-Aware Neural Keyphrase Generation for Social Media Language
Yue Wang | Jing Li | Hou Pong Chan | Irwin King | Michael R. Lyu | Shuming Shi
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

A huge volume of user-generated content is daily produced on social media. To facilitate automatic language understanding, we study keyphrase prediction, distilling salient information from massive posts. While most existing methods extract words from source posts to form keyphrases, we propose a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) based neural keyphrase generation framework, enabling absent keyphrases to be created. Moreover, our model, being topic-aware, allows joint modeling of corpus-level latent topic representations, which helps alleviate data sparsity widely exhibited in social media language. Experiments on three datasets collected from English and Chinese social media platforms show that our model significantly outperforms both extraction and generation models without exploiting latent topics. Further discussions show that our model learns meaningful topics, which interprets its superiority in social media keyphrase generation.

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Joint Effects of Context and User History for Predicting Online Conversation Re-entries
Xingshan Zeng | Jing Li | Lu Wang | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

As the online world continues its exponential growth, interpersonal communication has come to play an increasingly central role in opinion formation and change. In order to help users better engage with each other online, we study a challenging problem of re-entry prediction foreseeing whether a user will come back to a conversation they once participated in. We hypothesize that both the context of the ongoing conversations and the users’ previous chatting history will affect their continued interests in future engagement. Specifically, we propose a neural framework with three main layers, each modeling context, user history, and interactions between them, to explore how the conversation context and user chatting history jointly result in their re-entry behavior. We experiment with two large-scale datasets collected from Twitter and Reddit. Results show that our proposed framework with bi-attention achieves an F1 score of 61.1 on Twitter conversations, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods from previous work.

2018

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A Hybrid Approach to Automatic Corpus Generation for Chinese Spelling Check
Dingmin Wang | Yan Song | Jing Li | Jialong Han | Haisong Zhang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Chinese spelling check (CSC) is a challenging yet meaningful task, which not only serves as a preprocessing in many natural language processing(NLP) applications, but also facilitates reading and understanding of running texts in peoples’ daily lives. However, to utilize data-driven approaches for CSC, there is one major limitation that annotated corpora are not enough in applying algorithms and building models. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of constructing CSC corpus with automatically generated spelling errors, which are either visually or phonologically resembled characters, corresponding to the OCR- and ASR-based methods, respectively. Upon the constructed corpus, different models are trained and evaluated for CSC with respect to three standard test sets. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the corpus, therefore confirm the validity of our approach.

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Topic Memory Networks for Short Text Classification
Jichuan Zeng | Jing Li | Yan Song | Cuiyun Gao | Michael R. Lyu | Irwin King
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Many classification models work poorly on short texts due to data sparsity. To address this issue, we propose topic memory networks for short text classification with a novel topic memory mechanism to encode latent topic representations indicative of class labels. Different from most prior work that focuses on extending features with external knowledge or pre-trained topics, our model jointly explores topic inference and text classification with memory networks in an end-to-end manner. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets show that our model outperforms state-of-the-art models on short text classification, meanwhile generates coherent topics.

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Microblog Conversation Recommendation via Joint Modeling of Topics and Discourse
Xingshan Zeng | Jing Li | Lu Wang | Nicholas Beauchamp | Sarah Shugars | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Millions of conversations are generated every day on social media platforms. With limited attention, it is challenging for users to select which discussions they would like to participate in. Here we propose a new method for microblog conversation recommendation. While much prior work has focused on post-level recommendation, we exploit both the conversational context, and user content and behavior preferences. We propose a statistical model that jointly captures: (1) topics for representing user interests and conversation content, and (2) discourse modes for describing user replying behavior and conversation dynamics. Experimental results on two Twitter datasets demonstrate that our system outperforms methods that only model content without considering discourse.

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Encoding Conversation Context for Neural Keyphrase Extraction from Microblog Posts
Yingyi Zhang | Jing Li | Yan Song | Chengzhi Zhang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Existing keyphrase extraction methods suffer from data sparsity problem when they are conducted on short and informal texts, especially microblog messages. Enriching context is one way to alleviate this problem. Considering that conversations are formed by reposting and replying messages, they provide useful clues for recognizing essential content in target posts and are therefore helpful for keyphrase identification. In this paper, we present a neural keyphrase extraction framework for microblog posts that takes their conversation context into account, where four types of neural encoders, namely, averaged embedding, RNN, attention, and memory networks, are proposed to represent the conversation context. Experimental results on Twitter and Weibo datasets show that our framework with such encoders outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

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Directional Skip-Gram: Explicitly Distinguishing Left and Right Context for Word Embeddings
Yan Song | Shuming Shi | Jing Li | Haisong Zhang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

In this paper, we present directional skip-gram (DSG), a simple but effective enhancement of the skip-gram model by explicitly distinguishing left and right context in word prediction. In doing so, a direction vector is introduced for each word, whose embedding is thus learned by not only word co-occurrence patterns in its context, but also the directions of its contextual words. Theoretical and empirical studies on complexity illustrate that our model can be trained as efficient as the original skip-gram model, when compared to other extensions of the skip-gram model. Experimental results show that our model outperforms others on different datasets in semantic (word similarity measurement) and syntactic (part-of-speech tagging) evaluations, respectively.

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A Joint Model of Conversational Discourse Latent Topics on Microblogs
Jing Li | Yan Song | Zhongyu Wei | Kam-Fai Wong
Computational Linguistics, Volume 44, Issue 4 - December 2018

Conventional topic models are ineffective for topic extraction from microblog messages, because the data sparseness exhibited in short messages lacking structure and contexts results in poor message-level word co-occurrence patterns. To address this issue, we organize microblog messages as conversation trees based on their reposting and replying relations, and propose an unsupervised model that jointly learns word distributions to represent: (1) different roles of conversational discourse, and (2) various latent topics in reflecting content information. By explicitly distinguishing the probabilities of messages with varying discourse roles in containing topical words, our model is able to discover clusters of discourse words that are indicative of topical content. In an automatic evaluation on large-scale microblog corpora, our joint model yields topics with better coherence scores than competitive topic models from previous studies. Qualitative analysis on model outputs indicates that our model induces meaningful representations for both discourse and topics. We further present an empirical study on microblog summarization based on the outputs of our joint model. The results show that the jointly modeled discourse and topic representations can effectively indicate summary-worthy content in microblog conversations.

2016

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Topic Extraction from Microblog Posts Using Conversation Structures
Jing Li | Ming Liao | Wei Gao | Yulan He | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2015

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Using Content-level Structures for Summarizing Microblog Repost Trees
Jing Li | Wei Gao | Zhongyu Wei | Baolin Peng | Kam-Fai Wong
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

2006

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Discovering Relations among Named Entities by Detecting Community Structure
Tingting He | Junzhe Zhao | Jing Li
Proceedings of the 20th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation