Jingfei Du


2023

pdf bib
Speech-to-Speech Translation for a Real-world Unwritten Language
Peng-Jen Chen | Kevin Tran | Yilin Yang | Jingfei Du | Justine Kao | Yu-An Chung | Paden Tomasello | Paul-Ambroise Duquenne | Holger Schwenk | Hongyu Gong | Hirofumi Inaguma | Sravya Popuri | Changhan Wang | Juan Pino | Wei-Ning Hsu | Ann Lee
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We study speech-to-speech translation (S2ST) that translates speech from one language into another language and focuses on building systems to support languages without standard text writing systems. We use English-Taiwanese Hokkien as a case study, and present an end-to-end solution from training data collection, modeling choices to benchmark dataset release. First, we present efforts on creating human annotated data, automatically mining data from large unlabeled speech datasets, and adopting pseudo-labeling to produce weakly supervised data. On the modeling, we take advantage of recent advances in applying self-supervised discrete representations as target for prediction in S2ST and show the effectiveness of leveraging additional text supervision from Mandarin, a language similar to Hokkien, in model training. Finally, we release an S2ST benchmark set to facilitate future research in this field.

pdf bib
Coarse-to-Fine Contrastive Learning in Image-Text-Graph Space for Improved Vision-Language Compositionality
Harman Singh | Pengchuan Zhang | Qifan Wang | Mengjiao Wang | Wenhan Xiong | Jingfei Du | Yu Chen
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Contrastively trained vision-language models have achieved remarkable progress in vision and language representation learning. However, recent research has highlighted severe limitations of these models in their ability to perform compositional reasoning over objects, attributes, and relations. Scene graphs have emerged as an effective way to understand images compositionally. These are graph-structured semantic representations of images that contain objects, their attributes, and relations with other objects in a scene. In this work, we consider the scene graph parsed from text as a proxy for the image scene graph and propose a graph decomposition and augmentation framework along with a coarse-to-fine contrastive learning objective between images and text that aligns sentences of various complexities to the same image. We also introduce novel negative mining techniques in the scene graph space for improving attribute binding and relation understanding. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach that significantly improves attribute binding, relation understanding, systematic generalization, and productivity on multiple recently proposed benchmarks (For example, improvements up to 18% for systematic generalization, 16.5% for relation understanding over a strong baseline), while achieving similar or better performance than CLIP on various general multimodal tasks.

pdf bib
SpeechMatrix: A Large-Scale Mined Corpus of Multilingual Speech-to-Speech Translations
Paul-Ambroise Duquenne | Hongyu Gong | Ning Dong | Jingfei Du | Ann Lee | Vedanuj Goswami | Changhan Wang | Juan Pino | Benoît Sagot | Holger Schwenk
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present SpeechMatrix, a large-scale multilingual corpus of speech-to-speech translations mined from real speech of European Parliament recordings. It contains speech alignments in 136 language pairs with a total of 418 thousand hours of speech. To evaluate the quality of this parallel speech, we train bilingual speech-to-speech translation models on mined data only and establish extensive baseline results on EuroParl-ST, VoxPopuli and FLEURS test sets. Enabled by the multilinguality of SpeechMatrix, we also explore multilingual speech-to-speech translation, a topic which was addressed by few other works. We also demonstrate that model pre-training and sparse scaling using Mixture-of-Experts bring large gains to translation performance. The mined data and models will be publicly released

2022

pdf bib
On the Role of Bidirectionality in Language Model Pre-Training
Mikel Artetxe | Jingfei Du | Naman Goyal | Luke Zettlemoyer | Veselin Stoyanov
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Prior work on language model pre-training has explored different architectures and learning objectives, but differences in data, hyperparameters and evaluation make a principled comparison difficult. In this work, we focus on bidirectionality as a key factor that differentiates existing approaches, and present a comprehensive study of its role in next token prediction, text infilling, zero-shot priming and fine-tuning. We propose a new framework that generalizes prior approaches, including fully unidirectional models like GPT, fully bidirectional models like BERT, and hybrid models like CM3 and prefix LM. Our framework distinguishes between two notions of bidirectionality (bidirectional context and bidirectional attention) and allows us to control each of them separately. We find that the optimal configuration is largely application-dependent (e.g., bidirectional attention is beneficial for fine-tuning and infilling, but harmful for next token prediction and zero-shot priming). We train models with up to 6.7B parameters, and find differences to remain consistent at scale. While prior work on scaling has focused on left-to-right autoregressive models, our results suggest that this approach comes with some trade-offs, and it might be worthwhile to develop very large bidirectional models.

pdf bib
Improving In-Context Few-Shot Learning via Self-Supervised Training
Mingda Chen | Jingfei Du | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Todor Mihaylov | Srini Iyer | Veselin Stoyanov | Zornitsa Kozareva
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Self-supervised pretraining has made few-shot learning possible for many NLP tasks. But the pretraining objectives are not typically adapted specifically for in-context few-shot learning. In this paper, we propose to use self-supervision in an intermediate training stage between pretraining and downstream few-shot usage with the goal to teach the model to perform in-context few shot learning. We propose and evaluate four self-supervised objectives on two benchmarks. We find that the intermediate self-supervision stage produces models that outperform strong baselines. Ablation study shows that several factors affect the downstream performance, such as the amount of training data and the diversity of the self-supervised objectives. Human-annotated cross-task supervision and self-supervision are complementary. Qualitative analysis suggests that the self-supervised-trained models are better at following task requirements.

pdf bib
Few-shot Learning with Multilingual Generative Language Models
Xi Victoria Lin | Todor Mihaylov | Mikel Artetxe | Tianlu Wang | Shuohui Chen | Daniel Simig | Myle Ott | Naman Goyal | Shruti Bhosale | Jingfei Du | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Sam Shleifer | Punit Singh Koura | Vishrav Chaudhary | Brian O’Horo | Jeff Wang | Luke Zettlemoyer | Zornitsa Kozareva | Mona Diab | Veselin Stoyanov | Xian Li
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large-scale generative language models such as GPT-3 are competitive few-shot learners. While these models are known to be able to jointly represent many different languages, their training data is dominated by English, potentially limiting their cross-lingual generalization. In this work, we train multilingual generative language models on a corpus covering a diverse set of languages, and study their few- and zero-shot learning capabilities in a wide range of tasks. Our largest model with 7.5 billion parameters sets new state of the art in few-shot learning in more than 20 representative languages, outperforming GPT-3 of comparable size in multilingual commonsense reasoning (with +7.4% absolute accuracy improvement in 0-shot settings and +9.4% in 4-shot settings) and natural language inference (+5.4% in each of 0-shot and 4-shot settings). On the FLORES-101 machine translation benchmark, our model outperforms GPT-3 on 171 out of 182 directions with 32 training examples, while surpassing the official supervised baseline in 45 directions. We conduct an in-depth analysis of different multilingual prompting approaches, showing in particular that strong few-shot learning performance across languages can be achieved via cross-lingual transfer through both templates and demonstration examples.

pdf bib
Prompting ELECTRA: Few-Shot Learning with Discriminative Pre-Trained Models
Mengzhou Xia | Mikel Artetxe | Jingfei Du | Danqi Chen | Veselin Stoyanov
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained masked language models successfully perform few-shot learning by formulating downstream tasks as text infilling. How- ever, as a strong alternative in full-shot settings, discriminative pre-trained models like ELECTRA do not fit into the paradigm. In this work, we adapt prompt-based few-shot learning to ELECTRA and show that it outperforms masked language models in a wide range of tasks. ELECTRA is pre-trained to distinguish if a token is generated or original. We naturally extend that to prompt-based few-shot learning by training to score the originality of the target options without introducing new parameters. Our method can be easily adapted to tasks involving multi-token predictions without extra computation overhead. Analysis shows that ELECTRA learns distributions that align better with downstream tasks.

bib
Efficient Large Scale Language Modeling with Mixtures of Experts
Mikel Artetxe | Shruti Bhosale | Naman Goyal | Todor Mihaylov | Myle Ott | Sam Shleifer | Xi Victoria Lin | Jingfei Du | Srinivasan Iyer | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Giridharan Anantharaman | Xian Li | Shuohui Chen | Halil Akin | Mandeep Baines | Louis Martin | Xing Zhou | Punit Singh Koura | Brian O’Horo | Jeffrey Wang | Luke Zettlemoyer | Mona Diab | Zornitsa Kozareva | Veselin Stoyanov
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Mixture of Experts layers (MoEs) enable efficient scaling of language models through conditional computation. This paper presents a detailed empirical study of how autoregressive MoE language models scale in comparison with dense models in a wide range of settings: in- and out-of-domain language modeling, zero- and few-shot priming, and full-shot fine-tuning. With the exception of fine-tuning, we find MoEs to be substantially more compute efficient. At more modest training budgets, MoEs can match the performance of dense models using ~4 times less compute. This gap narrows at scale, but our largest MoE model (1.1T parameters) consistently outperforms a compute-equivalent dense model (6.7B parameters). Overall, this performance gap varies greatly across tasks and domains, suggesting that MoE and dense models generalize differently in ways that are worthy of future study. We make our code and models publicly available for research use.

2021

pdf bib
Self-training Improves Pre-training for Natural Language Understanding
Jingfei Du | Edouard Grave | Beliz Gunel | Vishrav Chaudhary | Onur Celebi | Michael Auli | Veselin Stoyanov | Alexis Conneau
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Unsupervised pre-training has led to much recent progress in natural language understanding. In this paper, we study self-training as another way to leverage unlabeled data through semi-supervised learning. To obtain additional data for a specific task, we introduce SentAugment, a data augmentation method which computes task-specific query embeddings from labeled data to retrieve sentences from a bank of billions of unlabeled sentences crawled from the web. Unlike previous semi-supervised methods, our approach does not require in-domain unlabeled data and is therefore more generally applicable. Experiments show that self-training is complementary to strong RoBERTa baselines on a variety of tasks. Our augmentation approach leads to scalable and effective self-training with improvements of up to 2.6% on standard text classification benchmarks. Finally, we also show strong gains on knowledge-distillation and few-shot learning.

pdf bib
Larger-Scale Transformers for Multilingual Masked Language Modeling
Naman Goyal | Jingfei Du | Myle Ott | Giri Anantharaman | Alexis Conneau
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2021)

Recent work has demonstrated the effectiveness of cross-lingual language model pretraining for cross-lingual understanding. In this study, we present the results of two larger multilingual masked language models, with 3.5B and 10.7B parameters. Our two new models dubbed and outperform XLM-R by 1.8% and 2.4% average accuracy on XNLI. Our model also outperforms the RoBERTa-Large model on several English tasks of the GLUE benchmark by 0.3% on average while handling 99 more languages. This suggests larger capacity models for language understanding may obtain strong performance on high-resource languages while greatly improving low-resource languages. We make our code and models publicly available.

2020

pdf bib
General Purpose Text Embeddings from Pre-trained Language Models for Scalable Inference
Jingfei Du | Myle Ott | Haoran Li | Xing Zhou | Veselin Stoyanov
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The state of the art on many NLP tasks is currently achieved by large pre-trained language models, which require a considerable amount of computation. We aim to reduce the inference cost in a setting where many different predictions are made on a single piece of text. In that case, computational cost during inference can be amortized over the different predictions (tasks) using a shared text encoder. We compare approaches for training such an encoder and show that encoders pre-trained over multiple tasks generalize well to unseen tasks. We also compare ways of extracting fixed- and limited-size representations from this encoder, including pooling features extracted from multiple layers or positions. Our best approach compares favorably to knowledge distillation, achieving higher accuracy and lower computational cost once the system is handling around 7 tasks. Further, we show that through binary quantization, we can reduce the size of the extracted representations by a factor of 16 to store them for later use. The resulting method offers a compelling solution for using large-scale pre-trained models at a fraction of the computational cost when multiple tasks are performed on the same text.

pdf bib
Pretrained Language Models for Biomedical and Clinical Tasks: Understanding and Extending the State-of-the-Art
Patrick Lewis | Myle Ott | Jingfei Du | Veselin Stoyanov
Proceedings of the 3rd Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop

A large array of pretrained models are available to the biomedical NLP (BioNLP) community. Finding the best model for a particular task can be difficult and time-consuming. For many applications in the biomedical and clinical domains, it is crucial that models can be built quickly and are highly accurate. We present a large-scale study across 18 established biomedical and clinical NLP tasks to determine which of several popular open-source biomedical and clinical NLP models work well in different settings. Furthermore, we apply recent advances in pretraining to train new biomedical language models, and carefully investigate the effect of various design choices on downstream performance. Our best models perform well in all of our benchmarks, and set new State-of-the-Art in 9 tasks. We release these models in the hope that they can help the community to speed up and increase the accuracy of BioNLP and text mining applications.

2019

pdf bib
Knowledge-Augmented Language Model and Its Application to Unsupervised Named-Entity Recognition
Angli Liu | Jingfei Du | Veselin Stoyanov
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Traditional language models are unable to efficiently model entity names observed in text. All but the most popular named entities appear infrequently in text providing insufficient context. Recent efforts have recognized that context can be generalized between entity names that share the same type (e.g., person or location) and have equipped language models with an access to external knowledge base (KB). Our Knowledge-Augmented Language Model (KALM) continues this line of work by augmenting a traditional model with a KB. Unlike previous methods, however, we train with an end-to-end predictive objective optimizing the perplexity of text. We do not require any additional information such as named entity tags. In addition to improving language modeling performance, KALM learns to recognize named entities in an entirely unsupervised way by using entity type information latent in the model. On a Named Entity Recognition (NER) task, KALM achieves performance comparable with state-of-the-art supervised models. Our work demonstrates that named entities (and possibly other types of world knowledge) can be modeled successfully using predictive learning and training on large corpora of text without any additional information.