Jinhua Du


2020

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Pointing to Select: A Fast Pointer-LSTM for Long Text Classification
Jinhua Du | Yan Huang | Karo Moilanen
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) suffer from well-known limitations and complications which include slow inference and vanishing gradients when processing long sequences in text classification. Recent studies have attempted to accelerate RNNs via various ad hoc mechanisms to skip irrelevant words in the input. However, word skipping approaches proposed to date effectively stop at each or a given time step to decide whether or not a given input word should be skipped, breaking the coherence of input processing in RNNs. Furthermore, current methods cannot change skip rates during inference and are consequently unable to support different skip rates in demanding real-world conditions. To overcome these limitations, we propose Pointer- LSTM, a novel LSTM framework which relies on a pointer network to select important words for target prediction. The model maintains a coherent input process for the LSTM modules and makes it possible to change the skip rate during inference. Our evaluation on four public data sets demonstrates that Pointer-LSTM (a) is 1.1x∼3.5x faster than the standard LSTM architecture; (b) is more accurate than Leap-LSTM (the state-of-the-art LSTM skipping model) at high skip rates; and (c) reaches robust accuracy levels even when the skip rate is changed during inference.

2019

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Self-Attention Enhanced CNNs and Collaborative Curriculum Learning for Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Yuyun Huang | Jinhua Du
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Distance supervision is widely used in relation extraction tasks, particularly when large-scale manual annotations are virtually impossible to conduct. Although Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction (DSRE) benefits from automatic labelling, it suffers from serious mislabelling issues, i.e. some or all of the instances for an entity pair (head and tail entities) do not express the labelled relation. In this paper, we propose a novel model that employs a collaborative curriculum learning framework to reduce the effects of mislabelled data. Specifically, we firstly propose an internal self-attention mechanism between the convolution operations in convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to learn a better sentence representation from the noisy inputs. Then we define two sentence selection models as two relation extractors in order to collaboratively learn and regularise each other under a curriculum scheme to alleviate noisy effects, where the curriculum could be constructed by conflicts or small loss. Finally, experiments are conducted on a widely-used public dataset and the results indicate that the proposed model significantly outperforms baselines including the state-of-the-art in terms of P@N and PR curve metrics, thus evidencing its capability of reducing noisy effects for DSRE.

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AIG Investments.AI at the FinSBD Task: Sentence Boundary Detection through Sequence Labelling and BERT Fine-tuning
Jinhua Du | Yan Huang | Karo Moilanen
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Financial Technology and Natural Language Processing

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Multilingualism at the Intersection of Knowledge Bases and Machine Translation
Mihael Arcan | Marco Turchi | Jinhua Du | Dimitar Shterionov | Daniel Torregrosa
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Multilingualism at the Intersection of Knowledge Bases and Machine Translation

2018

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NextGen AML: Distributed Deep Learning based Language Technologies to Augment Anti Money Laundering Investigation
Jingguang Han | Utsab Barman | Jeremiah Hayes | Jinhua Du | Edward Burgin | Dadong Wan
Proceedings of ACL 2018, System Demonstrations

Most of the current anti money laundering (AML) systems, using handcrafted rules, are heavily reliant on existing structured databases, which are not capable of effectively and efficiently identifying hidden and complex ML activities, especially those with dynamic and time-varying characteristics, resulting in a high percentage of false positives. Therefore, analysts are engaged for further investigation which significantly increases human capital cost and processing time. To alleviate these issues, this paper presents a novel framework for the next generation AML by applying and visualizing deep learning-driven natural language processing (NLP) technologies in a distributed and scalable manner to augment AML monitoring and investigation. The proposed distributed framework performs news and tweet sentiment analysis, entity recognition, relation extraction, entity linking and link analysis on different data sources (e.g. news articles and tweets) to provide additional evidence to human investigators for final decision-making. Each NLP module is evaluated on a task-specific data set, and the overall experiments are performed on synthetic and real-world datasets. Feedback from AML practitioners suggests that our system can reduce approximately 30% time and cost compared to their previous manual approaches of AML investigation.

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Multi-Level Structured Self-Attentions for Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Jinhua Du | Jingguang Han | Andy Way | Dadong Wan
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Attention mechanism is often used in deep neural networks for distantly supervised relation extraction (DS-RE) to distinguish valid from noisy instances. However, traditional 1-D vector attention model is insufficient for learning of different contexts in the selection of valid instances to predict the relationship for an entity pair. To alleviate this issue, we propose a novel multi-level structured (2-D matrix) self-attention mechanism for DS-RE in a multi-instance learning (MIL) framework using bidirectional recurrent neural networks (BiRNN). In the proposed method, a structured word-level self-attention learns a 2-D matrix where each row vector represents a weight distribution for different aspects of an instance regarding two entities. Targeting the MIL issue, the structured sentence-level attention learns a 2-D matrix where each row vector represents a weight distribution on selection of different valid instances. Experiments conducted on two publicly available DS-RE datasets show that the proposed framework with multi-level structured self-attention mechanism significantly outperform baselines in terms of PR curves, P@N and F1 measures.

2017

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Semantics-Enhanced Task-Oriented Dialogue Translation: A Case Study on Hotel Booking
Longyue Wang | Jinhua Du | Liangyou Li | Zhaopeng Tu | Andy Way | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, System Demonstrations

We showcase TODAY, a semantics-enhanced task-oriented dialogue translation system, whose novelties are: (i) task-oriented named entity (NE) definition and a hybrid strategy for NE recognition and translation; and (ii) a novel grounded semantic method for dialogue understanding and task-order management. TODAY is a case-study demo which can efficiently and accurately assist customers and agents in different languages to reach an agreement in a dialogue for the hotel booking.

2016

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Improving KantanMT Training Efficiency with fast_align
Dimitar Shterionov | Jinhua Du | Marc Anthony Palminteri | Laura Casanellas | Tony O’Dowd | Andy Way
Conferences of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas: MT Users' Track

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Using BabelNet to Improve OOV Coverage in SMT
Jinhua Du | Andy Way | Andrzej Zydron
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Out-of-vocabulary words (OOVs) are a ubiquitous and difficult problem in statistical machine translation (SMT). This paper studies different strategies of using BabelNet to alleviate the negative impact brought about by OOVs. BabelNet is a multilingual encyclopedic dictionary and a semantic network, which not only includes lexicographic and encyclopedic terms, but connects concepts and named entities in a very large network of semantic relations. By taking advantage of the knowledge in BabelNet, three different methods ― using direct training data, domain-adaptation techniques and the BabelNet API ― are proposed in this paper to obtain translations for OOVs to improve system performance. Experimental results on English―Polish and English―Chinese language pairs show that domain adaptation can better utilize BabelNet knowledge and performs better than other methods. The results also demonstrate that BabelNet is a really useful tool for improving translation performance of SMT systems.

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ProphetMT: A Tree-based SMT-driven Controlled Language Authoring/Post-Editing Tool
Xiaofeng Wu | Jinhua Du | Qun Liu | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

This paper presents ProphetMT, a tree-based SMT-driven Controlled Language (CL) authoring and post-editing tool. ProphetMT employs the source-side rules in a translation model and provides them as auto-suggestions to users. Accordingly, one might say that users are writing in a Controlled Language that is understood by the computer. ProphetMT also allows users to easily attach structural information as they compose content. When a specific rule is selected, a partial translation is promptly generated on-the-fly with the help of the structural information. Our experiments conducted on English-to-Chinese show that our proposed ProphetMT system can not only better regularise an author’s writing behaviour, but also significantly improve translation fluency which is vital to reduce the post-editing time. Additionally, when the writing and translation process is over, ProphetMT can provide an effective colour scheme to further improve the productivity of post-editors by explicitly featuring the relations between the source and target rules.

2015

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An empirical study of segment prioritization for incrementally retrained post-editing-based SMT
Jinhua Du | Ankit Srivastava | Andy Way | Alfredo Maldonado-Guerra | David Lewis
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XV: Papers

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Domain adaptation for social localisation-based SMT: a case study using the Trommons platform
Jinhua Du | Andy Way | Zhengwei Qiu | Asanka Wasala | Reinhard Schaler
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Post-editing Technology and Practice

2011

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Incorporating Source-Language Paraphrases into Phrase-Based SMT with Confusion Networks
Jie Jiang | Jinhua Du | Andy Way
Proceedings of Fifth Workshop on Syntax, Semantics and Structure in Statistical Translation

2010

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TMX Markup: A Challenge When Adapting SMT to the Localisation Environment
Jinhua Du | Johann Roturier | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 14th Annual conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

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The Impact of Source–Side Syntactic Reordering on Hierarchical Phrase-based SMT
Jinhua Du | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 14th Annual conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

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MATREX: The DCU MT System for WMT 2010
Sergio Penkale | Rejwanul Haque | Sandipan Dandapat | Pratyush Banerjee | Ankit K. Srivastava | Jinhua Du | Pavel Pecina | Sudip Kumar Naskar | Mikel L. Forcada | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR

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An Augmented Three-Pass System Combination Framework: DCU Combination System for WMT 2010
Jinhua Du | Pavel Pecina | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR

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The DCU Dependency-Based Metric in WMT-MetricsMATR 2010
Yifan He | Jinhua Du | Andy Way | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR

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Source-side Syntactic Reordering Patterns with Functional Words for Improved Phrase-based SMT
Jie Jiang | Jinhua Du | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Syntax and Structure in Statistical Translation

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Using TERp to Augment the System Combination for SMT
Jinhua Du | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas: Research Papers

TER-Plus (TERp) is an extended TER evaluation metric incorporating morphology, synonymy and paraphrases. There are three new edit operations in TERp: Stem Matches, Synonym Matches and Phrase Substitutions (Paraphrases). In this paper, we propose a TERp-based augmented system combination in terms of the backbone selection and consensus decoding network. Combining the new properties of the TERp, we also propose a two-pass decoding strategy for the lattice-based phrase-level confusion network (CN) to generate the final result.The experiments conducted on the NIST2008 Chinese-to-English test set show that our TERp-based augmented system combination framework achieves significant improvements in terms of BLEU and TERp scores compared to the state-of-the-art word-level system combination framework and a TER-based combination strategy.

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Improved Phrase-based SMT with Syntactic Reordering Patterns Learned from Lattice Scoring
Jie Jiang | Jinhua Du | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas: Research Papers

In this paper, we present a novel approach to incorporate source-side syntactic reordering patterns into phrase-based SMT. The main contribution of this work is to use the lattice scoring approach to exploit and utilize reordering information that is favoured by the baseline PBSMT system. By referring to the parse trees of the training corpus, we represent the observed reorderings with source-side syntactic patterns. The extracted patterns are then used to convert the parsed inputs into word lattices, which contain both the original source sentences and their potential reorderings. Weights of the word lattices are estimated from the observations of the syntactic reordering patterns in the training corpus. Finally, the PBSMT system is tuned and tested on the generated word lattices to show the benefits of adding potential source-side reorderings in the inputs. We confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method on a medium-sized corpus for Chinese-English machine translation task. Our method outperformed the baseline system by 1.67% relative on a randomly selected testset and 8.56% relative on the NIST 2008 testset in terms of BLEU score.

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Combining Multi-Domain Statistical Machine Translation Models using Automatic Classifiers
Pratyush Banerjee | Jinhua Du | Baoli Li | Sudip Naskar | Andy Way | Josef van Genabith
Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas: Research Papers

This paper presents a set of experiments on Domain Adaptation of Statistical Machine Translation systems. The experiments focus on Chinese-English and two domain-specific corpora. The paper presents a novel approach for combining multiple domain-trained translation models to achieve improved translation quality for both domain-specific as well as combined sets of sentences. We train a statistical classifier to classify sentences according to the appropriate domain and utilize the corresponding domain-specific MT models to translate them. Experimental results show that the method achieves a statistically significant absolute improvement of 1.58 BLEU (2.86% relative improvement) score over a translation model trained on combined data, and considerable improvements over a model using multiple decoding paths of the Moses decoder, for the combined domain test set. Furthermore, even for domain-specific test sets, our approach works almost as well as dedicated domain-specific models and perfect classification.

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Facilitating Translation Using Source Language Paraphrase Lattices
Jinhua Du | Jie Jiang | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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A Discriminative Latent Variable-Based “DE” Classifier for Chinese-English SMT
Jinhua Du | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010)

2009

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Source-Side Context-Informed Hypothesis Alignment for Combining Outputs from Machine Translation Systems
Jinhua Du | Yanjun Ma | Andy Way
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit XII: Posters

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Low-resource machine translation using MaTrEx
Yanjun Ma | Tsuyoshi Okita | Özlem Çetinoğlu | Jinhua Du | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

In this paper, we give a description of the Machine Translation (MT) system developed at DCU that was used for our fourth participation in the evaluation campaign of the International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2009). Two techniques are deployed in our system in order to improve the translation quality in a low-resource scenario. The first technique is to use multiple segmentations in MT training and to utilise word lattices in decoding stage. The second technique is used to select the optimal training data that can be used to build MT systems. In this year’s participation, we use three different prototype SMT systems, and the output from each system are combined using standard system combination method. Our system is the top system for Chinese–English CHALLENGE task in terms of BLEU score.

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MATREX: The DCU MT System for WMT 2009
Jinhua Du | Yifan He | Sergio Penkale | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

2008

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Exploiting alignment techniques in MATREX: the DCU machine translation system for IWSLT 2008.
Yanjun Ma | John Tinsley | Hany Hassan | Jinhua Du | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

In this paper, we give a description of the machine translation (MT) system developed at DCU that was used for our third participation in the evaluation campaign of the International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2008). In this participation, we focus on various techniques for word and phrase alignment to improve system quality. Specifically, we try out our word packing and syntax-enhanced word alignment techniques for the Chinese–English task and for the English–Chinese task for the first time. For all translation tasks except Arabic–English, we exploit linguistically motivated bilingual phrase pairs extracted from parallel treebanks. We smooth our translation tables with out-of-domain word translations for the Arabic–English and Chinese–English tasks in order to solve the problem of the high number of out of vocabulary items. We also carried out experiments combining both in-domain and out-of-domain data to improve system performance and, finally, we deploy a majority voting procedure combining a language model-based method and a translation-based method for case and punctuation restoration. We participated in all the translation tasks and translated both the single-best ASR hypotheses and the correct recognition results. The translation results confirm that our new word and phrase alignment techniques are often helpful in improving translation quality, and the data combination method we proposed can significantly improve system performance.

2006

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NLPR translation system for IWSLT 2006 evaluation campaign
Chunguang Chai | Jinhua Du | Wei Wei | Peng Liu | Keyan Zhou | Yanqing He | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign