Jinhyuk Lee


2021

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Phrase Retrieval Learns Passage Retrieval, Too
Jinhyuk Lee | Alexander Wettig | Danqi Chen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Dense retrieval methods have shown great promise over sparse retrieval methods in a range of NLP problems. Among them, dense phrase retrieval—the most fine-grained retrieval unit—is appealing because phrases can be directly used as the output for question answering and slot filling tasks. In this work, we follow the intuition that retrieving phrases naturally entails retrieving larger text blocks and study whether phrase retrieval can serve as the basis for coarse-level retrieval including passages and documents. We first observe that a dense phrase-retrieval system, without any retraining, already achieves better passage retrieval accuracy (+3-5% in top-5 accuracy) compared to passage retrievers, which also helps achieve superior end-to-end QA performance with fewer passages. Then, we provide an interpretation for why phrase-level supervision helps learn better fine-grained entailment compared to passage-level supervision, and also show that phrase retrieval can be improved to achieve competitive performance in document-retrieval tasks such as entity linking and knowledge-grounded dialogue. Finally, we demonstrate how phrase filtering and vector quantization can reduce the size of our index by 4-10x, making dense phrase retrieval a practical and versatile solution in multi-granularity retrieval.

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Can Language Models be Biomedical Knowledge Bases?
Mujeen Sung | Jinhyuk Lee | Sean Yi | Minji Jeon | Sungdong Kim | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained language models (LMs) have become ubiquitous in solving various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. There has been increasing interest in what knowledge these LMs contain and how we can extract that knowledge, treating LMs as knowledge bases (KBs). While there has been much work on probing LMs in the general domain, there has been little attention to whether these powerful LMs can be used as domain-specific KBs. To this end, we create the BioLAMA benchmark, which is comprised of 49K biomedical factual knowledge triples for probing biomedical LMs. We find that biomedical LMs with recently proposed probing methods can achieve up to 18.51% Acc@5 on retrieving biomedical knowledge. Although this seems promising given the task difficulty, our detailed analyses reveal that most predictions are highly correlated with prompt templates without any subjects, hence producing similar results on each relation and hindering their capabilities to be used as domain-specific KBs. We hope that BioLAMA can serve as a challenging benchmark for biomedical factual probing.

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Simple Entity-Centric Questions Challenge Dense Retrievers
Christopher Sciavolino | Zexuan Zhong | Jinhyuk Lee | Danqi Chen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Open-domain question answering has exploded in popularity recently due to the success of dense retrieval models, which have surpassed sparse models using only a few supervised training examples. However, in this paper, we demonstrate current dense models are not yet the holy grail of retrieval. We first construct EntityQuestions, a set of simple, entity-rich questions based on facts from Wikidata (e.g., “Where was Arve Furset born?”), and observe that dense retrievers drastically under-perform sparse methods. We investigate this issue and uncover that dense retrievers can only generalize to common entities unless the question pattern is explicitly observed during training. We discuss two simple solutions towards addressing this critical problem. First, we demonstrate that data augmentation is unable to fix the generalization problem. Second, we argue a more robust passage encoder helps facilitate better question adaptation using specialized question encoders. We hope our work can shed light on the challenges in creating a robust, universal dense retriever that works well across different input distributions.

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Learning Dense Representations of Phrases at Scale
Jinhyuk Lee | Mujeen Sung | Jaewoo Kang | Danqi Chen
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Open-domain question answering can be reformulated as a phrase retrieval problem, without the need for processing documents on-demand during inference (Seo et al., 2019). However, current phrase retrieval models heavily depend on sparse representations and still underperform retriever-reader approaches. In this work, we show for the first time that we can learn dense representations of phrases alone that achieve much stronger performance in open-domain QA. We present an effective method to learn phrase representations from the supervision of reading comprehension tasks, coupled with novel negative sampling methods. We also propose a query-side fine-tuning strategy, which can support transfer learning and reduce the discrepancy between training and inference. On five popular open-domain QA datasets, our model DensePhrases improves over previous phrase retrieval models by 15%-25% absolute accuracy and matches the performance of state-of-the-art retriever-reader models. Our model is easy to parallelize due to pure dense representations and processes more than 10 questions per second on CPUs. Finally, we directly use our pre-indexed dense phrase representations for two slot filling tasks, showing the promise of utilizing DensePhrases as a dense knowledge base for downstream tasks.

2020

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Contextualized Sparse Representations for Real-Time Open-Domain Question Answering
Jinhyuk Lee | Minjoon Seo | Hannaneh Hajishirzi | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Open-domain question answering can be formulated as a phrase retrieval problem, in which we can expect huge scalability and speed benefit but often suffer from low accuracy due to the limitation of existing phrase representation models. In this paper, we aim to improve the quality of each phrase embedding by augmenting it with a contextualized sparse representation (Sparc). Unlike previous sparse vectors that are term-frequency-based (e.g., tf-idf) or directly learned (only few thousand dimensions), we leverage rectified self-attention to indirectly learn sparse vectors in n-gram vocabulary space. By augmenting the previous phrase retrieval model (Seo et al., 2019) with Sparc, we show 4%+ improvement in CuratedTREC and SQuAD-Open. Our CuratedTREC score is even better than the best known retrieve & read model with at least 45x faster inference speed.

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Biomedical Entity Representations with Synonym Marginalization
Mujeen Sung | Hwisang Jeon | Jinhyuk Lee | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Biomedical named entities often play important roles in many biomedical text mining tools. However, due to the incompleteness of provided synonyms and numerous variations in their surface forms, normalization of biomedical entities is very challenging. In this paper, we focus on learning representations of biomedical entities solely based on the synonyms of entities. To learn from the incomplete synonyms, we use a model-based candidate selection and maximize the marginal likelihood of the synonyms present in top candidates. Our model-based candidates are iteratively updated to contain more difficult negative samples as our model evolves. In this way, we avoid the explicit pre-selection of negative samples from more than 400K candidates. On four biomedical entity normalization datasets having three different entity types (disease, chemical, adverse reaction), our model BioSyn consistently outperforms previous state-of-the-art models almost reaching the upper bound on each dataset.

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Look at the First Sentence: Position Bias in Question Answering
Miyoung Ko | Jinhyuk Lee | Hyunjae Kim | Gangwoo Kim | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Many extractive question answering models are trained to predict start and end positions of answers. The choice of predicting answers as positions is mainly due to its simplicity and effectiveness. In this study, we hypothesize that when the distribution of the answer positions is highly skewed in the training set (e.g., answers lie only in the k-th sentence of each passage), QA models predicting answers as positions can learn spurious positional cues and fail to give answers in different positions. We first illustrate this position bias in popular extractive QA models such as BiDAF and BERT and thoroughly examine how position bias propagates through each layer of BERT. To safely deliver position information without position bias, we train models with various de-biasing methods including entropy regularization and bias ensembling. Among them, we found that using the prior distribution of answer positions as a bias model is very effective at reducing position bias, recovering the performance of BERT from 37.48% to 81.64% when trained on a biased SQuAD dataset.

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Adversarial Subword Regularization for Robust Neural Machine Translation
Jungsoo Park | Mujeen Sung | Jinhyuk Lee | Jaewoo Kang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Exposing diverse subword segmentations to neural machine translation (NMT) models often improves the robustness of machine translation as NMT models can experience various subword candidates. However, the diversification of subword segmentations mostly relies on the pre-trained subword language models from which erroneous segmentations of unseen words are less likely to be sampled. In this paper, we present adversarial subword regularization (ADVSR) to study whether gradient signals during training can be a substitute criterion for exposing diverse subword segmentations. We experimentally show that our model-based adversarial samples effectively encourage NMT models to be less sensitive to segmentation errors and improve the performance of NMT models in low-resource and out-domain datasets.

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Answering Questions on COVID-19 in Real-Time
Jinhyuk Lee | Sean S. Yi | Minbyul Jeong | Mujeen Sung | WonJin Yoon | Yonghwa Choi | Miyoung Ko | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for COVID-19 (Part 2) at EMNLP 2020

The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus is wreaking havoc on the world and researchers are struggling to effectively combat it. One reason why the fight is difficult is due to the lack of information and knowledge. In this work, we outline our effort to contribute to shrinking this knowledge vacuum by creating covidAsk, a question answering (QA) system that combines biomedical text mining and QA techniques to provide answers to questions in real-time. Our system also leverages information retrieval (IR) approaches to provide entity-level answers that are complementary to QA models. Evaluation of covidAsk is carried out by using a manually created dataset called COVID-19 Questions which is based on information from various sources, including the CDC and the WHO. We hope our system will be able to aid researchers in their search for knowledge and information not only for COVID-19, but for future pandemics as well.

2019

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Real-Time Open-Domain Question Answering with Dense-Sparse Phrase Index
Minjoon Seo | Jinhyuk Lee | Tom Kwiatkowski | Ankur Parikh | Ali Farhadi | Hannaneh Hajishirzi
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Existing open-domain question answering (QA) models are not suitable for real-time usage because they need to process several long documents on-demand for every input query, which is computationally prohibitive. In this paper, we introduce query-agnostic indexable representations of document phrases that can drastically speed up open-domain QA. In particular, our dense-sparse phrase encoding effectively captures syntactic, semantic, and lexical information of the phrases and eliminates the pipeline filtering of context documents. Leveraging strategies for optimizing training and inference time, our model can be trained and deployed even in a single 4-GPU server. Moreover, by representing phrases as pointers to their start and end tokens, our model indexes phrases in the entire English Wikipedia (up to 60 billion phrases) using under 2TB. Our experiments on SQuAD-Open show that our model is on par with or more accurate than previous models with 6000x reduced computational cost, which translates into at least 68x faster end-to-end inference benchmark on CPUs. Code and demo are available at nlp.cs.washington.edu/denspi

2018

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Ranking Paragraphs for Improving Answer Recall in Open-Domain Question Answering
Jinhyuk Lee | Seongjun Yun | Hyunjae Kim | Miyoung Ko | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently, open-domain question answering (QA) has been combined with machine comprehension models to find answers in a large knowledge source. As open-domain QA requires retrieving relevant documents from text corpora to answer questions, its performance largely depends on the performance of document retrievers. However, since traditional information retrieval systems are not effective in obtaining documents with a high probability of containing answers, they lower the performance of QA systems. Simply extracting more documents increases the number of irrelevant documents, which also degrades the performance of QA systems. In this paper, we introduce Paragraph Ranker which ranks paragraphs of retrieved documents for a higher answer recall with less noise. We show that ranking paragraphs and aggregating answers using Paragraph Ranker improves performance of open-domain QA pipeline on the four open-domain QA datasets by 7.8% on average.