Jinpeng Zhang


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Representation Degeneration Problem in Prompt-based Models for Natural Language Understanding
Qingyan Zhao | Ruifang He | Jinpeng Zhang | Chang Liu | Bo Wang
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Prompt-based fine-tuning (PF), by aligning with the training objective of pre-trained language models (PLMs), has shown improved performance on many few-shot natural language understanding (NLU) benchmarks. However, the word embedding space of PLMs exhibits anisotropy, which is called the representation degeneration problem. In this paper, we explore the self-similarity within the same context and identify the anisotropy of the feature embedding space in PF model. Given that the performance of PF models is dependent on feature embeddings, we inevitably pose the hypothesis: this anisotropy limits the performance of the PF models. Based on our experimental findings, we propose CLMA, a Contrastive Learning framework based on the [MASK] token and Answers, to alleviate the anisotropy in the embedding space. By combining our proposed counter-intuitive SSD, a Supervised Signal based on embedding Distance, our approach outperforms mainstream methods on the many NLU benchmarks in the few-shot experimental settings. In subsequent experiments, we analyze the capability of our method to capture deep semantic cues and the impact of the anisotropy in the feature embedding space on the performance of the PF model.


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Disambiguated Lexically Constrained Neural Machine Translation
Jinpeng Zhang | Nini Xiao | Ke Wang | Chuanqi Dong | Xiangyu Duan | Yuqi Zhang | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Lexically constrained neural machine translation (LCNMT), which controls the translation generation with pre-specified constraints, is important in many practical applications. Current approaches to LCNMT typically assume that the pre-specified lexicon constraints are contextually appropriate. This assumption limits their application to real-world scenarios where a source lexicon may have multiple target constraints, and disambiguation is needed to select the most suitable one. In this paper, we propose disambiguated LCNMT (D-LCNMT) to solve the problem. D-LCNMT is a robust and effective two-stage framework that disambiguates the constraints based on contexts at first, then integrates the disambiguated constraints into LCNMT. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms strong baselines including existing data argumentation based approaches on benchmark datasets, and comprehensive experiments in scenarios where a source lexicon corresponds to multiple target constraints demonstrate the constraint disambiguation superiority of our approach.


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Third-Party Aligner for Neural Word Alignments
Jinpeng Zhang | Chuanqi Dong | Xiangyu Duan | Yuqi Zhang | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Word alignment is to find translationally equivalent words between source and target sentences. Previous work has demonstrated that self-training can achieve competitive word alignment results. In this paper, we propose to use word alignments generated by a third-party word aligner to supervise the neural word alignment training. Specifically, source word and target word of each word pair aligned by the third-party aligner are trained to be close neighbors to each other in the contextualized embedding space when fine-tuning a pre-trained cross-lingual language model. Experiments on the benchmarks of various language pairs show that our approach can surprisingly do self-correction over the third-party supervision by finding more accurate word alignments and deleting wrong word alignments, leading to better performance than various third-party word aligners, including the currently best one. When we integrate all supervisions from various third-party aligners, we achieve state-of-the-art word alignment performances, with averagely more than two points lower alignment error rates than the best third-party aligner.We released our code at https://github.com/sdongchuanqi/Third-Party-Supervised-Aligner.


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Combining Static Word Embeddings and Contextual Representations for Bilingual Lexicon Induction
Jinpeng Zhang | Baijun Ji | Nini Xiao | Xiangyu Duan | Min Zhang | Yangbin Shi | Weihua Luo
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021