Jipeng Zhang


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UniMath: A Foundational and Multimodal Mathematical Reasoner
Zhenwen Liang | Tianyu Yang | Jipeng Zhang | Xiangliang Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While significant progress has been made in natural language processing (NLP), existing methods exhibit limitations in effectively interpreting and processing diverse mathematical modalities. Therefore, we introduce UniMath, a versatile and unified system designed for multimodal mathematical reasoning tasks. Tackling complex problem-solving in arithmetic, geometry, and table-based math, UniMath utilizes a fine-tuned T5 model augmented with a variational autoencoder (VAE)-based image tokenizer. By jointly training and evaluating the model on three diverse datasets - SVAMP, GeoQA, and TableMWP, UniMath achieves state-of-the-art performance. The model’s generalization ability is further demonstrated via fine-tuning on two additional datasets, MathQA and Geo-Proving. Through comprehensive evaluations, we showcase that joint training across diverse math tasks improves overall model performance and enhances its ability to generalize across different mathematical reasoning tasks. This pioneering approach provides a blueprint and inspires further efforts on unified mathematical reasoning with deep learning systems.

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DetGPT: Detect What You Need via Reasoning
Renjie Pi | Jiahui Gao | Shizhe Diao | Rui Pan | Hanze Dong | Jipeng Zhang | Lewei Yao | Jianhua Han | Hang Xu | Lingpeng Kong | Tong Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In recent years, the field of computer vision has seen significant advancements thanks to the development of large language models (LLMs). These models have enabled more effective and sophisticated interactions between humans and machines, paving the way for novel techniques that blur the lines between human and machine intelligence. In this paper, we introduce a new paradigm for object detection that we call reasoning-based object detection. Unlike conventional object detection methods that rely on specific object names, our approach enables users to interact with the system using natural language instructions, allowing for a higher level of interactivity. Our proposed method, called DetGPT, leverages state-of-the-art multi-modal models and open-vocabulary object detectors to perform reasoning within the context of the user’s instructions and the visual scene. This enables DetGPT to automatically locate the object of interest based on the user’s expressed desires, even if the object is not explicitly mentioned. For instance, if a user expresses a desire for a cold beverage, DetGPT can analyze the image, identify a fridge, and use its knowledge of typical fridge contents to locate the beverage. This flexibility makes our system applicable across a wide range of fields, from robotics and automation to autonomous driving. Overall, our proposed paradigm and DetGPT demonstrate the potential for more sophisticated and intuitive interactions between humans and machines. We hope that our proposed paradigm and approach will provide inspiration to the community and open the door to more interactive and versatile object detection systems.

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Don’t be Blind to Questions: Question-Oriented Math Word Problem Solving
Zhenwen Liang | Jipeng Zhang | Xiangliang Zhang
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Compositional Mathematical Encoding for Math Word Problems
Zhenwen Liang | Jipeng Zhang | Kehan Guo | Xiaodong Wu | Jie Shao | Xiangliang Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Solving math word problem (MWP) remains a challenging task, as it requires to understand both the semantic meanings of the text and the mathematical logic among quantities, i.e., for both semantics modal and quantity modal learning. Current MWP encoders work in a uni-modal setting and map the given problem description to a latent representation, then for decoding. The generalizability of these MWP encoders is thus limited because some problems are semantics-demanding and others are quantity-demanding. To address this problem, we propose a Compositional Math Word Problem Solver (C-MWP) which works in a bi-modal setting encoding in an interactive way. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of C-MWP and show its superiority over state-of-the-art models on public benchmarks.

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Toward Building General Foundation Models for Language, Vision, and Vision-Language Understanding Tasks
Xinsong Zhang | Yan Zeng | Jipeng Zhang | Hang Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Foundation models or pre-trained models have substantially improved the performance of various language, vision, and vision-language understanding tasks. However, existing foundation models can only perform the best in one type of tasks, namely language, vision, or vision-language. It is still an open question whether it is possible to construct a general foundation model performing the best for all the understanding tasks. In this paper, we propose a new method for training the general foundation model, X-FM (the X-Foundation Model). X-FM has one language encoder, one vision encoder, and one fusion encoder, as well as a new training method. The training method includes two new techniques for learning X-FM from text, image, and image-text pair data. One is to stop gradients from the vision-language training when learning the language encoder. The other is to leverage the vision-language training to guide the learning of the vision encoder. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets show that X-FM can significantly outperform existing general foundation models and perform better than or comparable to existing foundation models specifically for language, vision, or vision-language understanding. Code and pre-trained models are released at https://github.com/zhangxinsong-nlp/XFM.

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Non-Autoregressive Sentence Ordering
Yi Bin | Wenhao Shi | Bin Ji | Jipeng Zhang | Yujuan Ding | Yang Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Existing sentence ordering approaches generally employ encoder-decoder frameworks with the pointer net to recover the coherence by recurrently predicting each sentence step-by-step. Such an autoregressive manner only leverages unilateral dependencies during decoding and cannot fully explore the semantic dependency between sentences for ordering. To overcome these limitations, in this paper, we propose a novel Non-Autoregressive Ordering Network, dubbed NAON, which explores bilateral dependencies between sentences and predicts the sentence for each position in parallel. We claim that the non-autoregressive manner is not just applicable but also particularly suitable to the sentence ordering task because of two peculiar characteristics of the task: 1) each generation target is in deterministic length, and 2) the sentences and positions should match exclusively. Furthermore, to address the repetition issue of the naive non-autoregressive Transformer, we introduce an exclusive loss to constrain the exclusiveness between positions and sentences. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed model, we conduct extensive experiments on several common-used datasets and the experimental results show that our method outperforms all the autoregressive approaches and yields competitive performance compared with the state-of-the-arts. The codes are available at: https://github.com/steven640pixel/nonautoregressive-sentence-ordering.


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Analogical Math Word Problems Solving with Enhanced Problem-Solution Association
Zhenwen Liang | Jipeng Zhang | Xiangliang Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Math word problem (MWP) solving is an important task in question answering which requires human-like reasoning ability. Analogical reasoning has long been used in mathematical education, as it enables students to apply common relational structures of mathematical situations to solve new problems. In this paper, we propose to build a novel MWP solver by leveraging analogical MWPs, which advance the solver’s generalization ability across different kinds of MWPs. The key idea, named analogy identification, is to associate the analogical MWP pairs in a latent space, i.e., encoding an MWP close to another analogical MWP, while leaving away from the non-analogical ones. Moreover, a solution discriminator is integrated into the MWP solver to enhance the association between an MWP and its true solution. The evaluation results verify that our proposed analogical learning strategy promotes the performance of MWP-BERT on Math23k over the state-of-the-art model Generate2Rank, with 5 times fewer parameters in the encoder. We also find that our model has a stronger generalization ability in solving difficult MWPs due to the analogical learning from easy MWPs.

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MWP-BERT: Numeracy-Augmented Pre-training for Math Word Problem Solving
Zhenwen Liang | Jipeng Zhang | Lei Wang | Wei Qin | Yunshi Lan | Jie Shao | Xiangliang Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Math word problem (MWP) solving faces a dilemma in number representation learning. In order to avoid the number representation issue and reduce the search space of feasible solutions, existing works striving for MWP solving usually replace real numbers with symbolic placeholders to focus on logic reasoning. However, different from common symbolic reasoning tasks like program synthesis and knowledge graph reasoning, MWP solving has extra requirements in numerical reasoning. In other words, instead of the number value itself, it is the reusable numerical property that matters more in numerical reasoning. Therefore, we argue that injecting numerical properties into symbolic placeholders with contextualized representation learning schema can provide a way out of the dilemma in the number representation issue here. In this work, we introduce this idea to the popular pre-training language model (PLM) techniques and build MWP-BERT, an effective contextual number representation PLM. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our MWP-BERT on MWP solving and several MWP-specific understanding tasks on both English and Chinese benchmarks.

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Execution-based Evaluation for Data Science Code Generation Models
Junjie Huang | Chenglong Wang | Jipeng Zhang | Cong Yan | Haotian Cui | Jeevana Priya Inala | Colin Clement | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Data Science with Human-in-the-Loop (Language Advances)

Code generation models can benefit data scientists’ productivity by automatically generating code from context and text descriptions. An important measure of the modeling progress is whether a model can generate code that can correctly execute to solve the task. However, due to the lack of an evaluation dataset that directly supports execution-based model evaluation, existing work relies on code surface form similarity metrics (e.g., BLEU, CodeBLEU) for model selection, which can be inaccurate. To remedy this, we introduce ExeDS, an evaluation dataset for execution evaluation for data science code generation tasks. ExeDS contains a set of 534 problems from Jupyter Notebooks, each consisting of code context, task description, reference program, and the desired execution output. With ExeDS, we evaluate the execution performance of five state-of-the-art code generation models that have achieved high surface-form evaluation scores. Our experiments show that models with high surface-form scores do not necessarily perform well on execution metrics, and execution-based metrics can better capture model code generation errors. All the code and data will be released upon acceptance.


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Graph-to-Tree Learning for Solving Math Word Problems
Jipeng Zhang | Lei Wang | Roy Ka-Wei Lee | Yi Bin | Yan Wang | Jie Shao | Ee-Peng Lim
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

While the recent tree-based neural models have demonstrated promising results in generating solution expression for the math word problem (MWP), most of these models do not capture the relationships and order information among the quantities well. This results in poor quantity representations and incorrect solution expressions. In this paper, we propose Graph2Tree, a novel deep learning architecture that combines the merits of the graph-based encoder and tree-based decoder to generate better solution expressions. Included in our Graph2Tree framework are two graphs, namely the Quantity Cell Graph and Quantity Comparison Graph, which are designed to address limitations of existing methods by effectively representing the relationships and order information among the quantities in MWPs. We conduct extensive experiments on two available datasets. Our experiment results show that Graph2Tree outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines on two benchmark datasets significantly. We also discuss case studies and empirically examine Graph2Tree’s effectiveness in translating the MWP text into solution expressions.


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Modeling Intra-Relation in Math Word Problems with Different Functional Multi-Head Attentions
Jierui Li | Lei Wang | Jipeng Zhang | Yan Wang | Bing Tian Dai | Dongxiang Zhang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Several deep learning models have been proposed for solving math word problems (MWPs) automatically. Although these models have the ability to capture features without manual efforts, their approaches to capturing features are not specifically designed for MWPs. To utilize the merits of deep learning models with simultaneous consideration of MWPs’ specific features, we propose a group attention mechanism to extract global features, quantity-related features, quantity-pair features and question-related features in MWPs respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed approach performs significantly better than previous state-of-the-art methods, and boost performance from 66.9% to 69.5% on Math23K with training-test split, from 65.8% to 66.9% on Math23K with 5-fold cross-validation and from 69.2% to 76.1% on MAWPS.