Jonas Belouadi


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UScore: An Effective Approach to Fully Unsupervised Evaluation Metrics for Machine Translation
Jonas Belouadi | Steffen Eger
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The vast majority of evaluation metrics for machine translation are supervised, i.e., (i) are trained on human scores, (ii) assume the existence of reference translations, or (iii) leverage parallel data. This hinders their applicability to cases where such supervision signals are not available. In this work, we develop fully unsupervised evaluation metrics. To do so, we leverage similarities and synergies between evaluation metric induction, parallel corpus mining, and MT systems. In particular, we use an unsupervised evaluation metric to mine pseudo-parallel data, which we use to remap deficient underlying vector spaces (in an iterative manner) and to induce an unsupervised MT system, which then provides pseudo-references as an additional component in the metric. Finally, we also induce unsupervised multilingual sentence embeddings from pseudo-parallel data. We show that our fully unsupervised metrics are effective, i.e., they beat supervised competitors on 4 out of our 5 evaluation datasets. We make our code publicly available.

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ByGPT5: End-to-End Style-conditioned Poetry Generation with Token-free Language Models
Jonas Belouadi | Steffen Eger
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

State-of-the-art poetry generation systems are often complex. They either consist of task-specific model pipelines, incorporate prior knowledge in the form of manually created constraints, or both. In contrast, end-to-end models would not suffer from the overhead of having to model prior knowledge and could learn the nuances of poetry from data alone, reducing the degree of human supervision required. In this work, we investigate end-to-end poetry generation conditioned on styles such as rhyme, meter, and alliteration. We identify and address lack of training data and mismatching tokenization algorithms as possible limitations of past attempts. In particular, we successfully pre-train ByGPT5, a new token-free decoder-only language model, and fine-tune it on a large custom corpus of English and German quatrains annotated with our styles. We show that ByGPT5 outperforms other models such as mT5, ByT5, GPT-2 and ChatGPT, while also being more parameter efficient and performing favorably compared to humans. In addition, we analyze its runtime performance and demonstrate that it is not prone to memorization. We make our code, models, and datasets publicly available.


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Reproducibility Issues for BERT-based Evaluation Metrics
Yanran Chen | Jonas Belouadi | Steffen Eger
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Reproducibility is of utmost concern in machine learning and natural language processing (NLP). In the field of natural language generation (especially machine translation), the seminal paper of Post (2018) has pointed out problems of reproducibility of the dominant metric, BLEU, at the time of publication. Nowadays, BERT-based evaluation metrics considerably outperform BLEU. In this paper, we ask whether results and claims from four recent BERT-based metrics can be reproduced. We find that reproduction of claims and results often fails because of (i) heavy undocumented preprocessing involved in the metrics, (ii) missing code and (iii) reporting weaker results for the baseline metrics. (iv) In one case, the problem stems from correlating not to human scores but to a wrong column in the csv file, inflating scores by 5 points. Motivated by the impact of preprocessing, we then conduct a second study where we examine its effects more closely (for one of the metrics). We find that preprocessing can have large effects, especially for highly inflectional languages. In this case, the effect of preprocessing may be larger than the effect of the aggregation mechanism (e.g., greedy alignment vs. Word Mover Distance).


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End-to-end style-conditioned poetry generation: What does it take to learn from examples alone?
Jörg Wöckener | Thomas Haider | Tristan Miller | The-Khang Nguyen | Thanh Tung Linh Nguyen | Minh Vu Pham | Jonas Belouadi | Steffen Eger
Proceedings of the 5th Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

In this work, we design an end-to-end model for poetry generation based on conditioned recurrent neural network (RNN) language models whose goal is to learn stylistic features (poem length, sentiment, alliteration, and rhyming) from examples alone. We show this model successfully learns the ‘meaning’ of length and sentiment, as we can control it to generate longer or shorter as well as more positive or more negative poems. However, the model does not grasp sound phenomena like alliteration and rhyming, but instead exploits low-level statistical cues. Possible reasons include the size of the training data, the relatively low frequency and difficulty of these sublexical phenomena as well as model biases. We show that more recent GPT-2 models also have problems learning sublexical phenomena such as rhyming from examples alone.