Reasoning about causal and temporal event relations in videos is a new destination of Video Question Answering (VideoQA). The major stumbling block to achieve this purpose is the semantic gap between language and video since they are at different levels of abstraction. Existing efforts mainly focus on designing sophisticated architectures while utilizing frame- or object-level visual representations. In this paper, we reconsider the multi-modal alignment problem in VideoQA from feature and sample perspectives to achieve better performance. From the view of feature, we break down the video into trajectories and first leverage trajectory feature in VideoQA to enhance the alignment between two modalities. Moreover, we adopt a heterogeneous graph architecture and design a hierarchical framework to align both trajectory-level and frame-level visual feature with language feature. In addition, we found that VideoQA models are largely dependent on languagepriors and always neglect visual-language interactions. Thus, two effective yet portable training augmentation strategies are designed to strengthen the cross-modal correspondence ability of our model from the view of sample. Extensive results show that our method outperforms all the state-of the-art models on the challenging NExT-QA benchmark.
Sentiment analysis is increasingly viewed as a vital task both from an academic and a commercial standpoint. In this paper, we focus on the structured sentiment analysis task that is released on SemEval-2022 Task 10. The task aims to extract the structured sentiment information (e.g., holder, target, expression and sentiment polarity) in a text. We propose a simple and unified model for both the monolingual and crosslingual structured sentiment analysis tasks. We translate this task into an event extraction task by regrading the expression as the trigger word and the other elements as the arguments of the event. Particularly, we first extract the expression by judging its start and end indices. Then, to consider the expression, we design a conditional layer normalization algorithm to extract the holder and target based on the extracted expression. Finally, we infer the sentiment polarity based on the extracted structured information. Pre-trained language models are utilized to obtain the text representation. We conduct the experiments on seven datasets in five languages. It attracted 233 submissions in monolingual subtask and crosslingual subtask from 32 teams. Finally, we obtain the top 5 place on crosslingual tasks.
Given an untrimmed video and a natural language query, Natural Language Video Localization (NLVL) aims to identify the video moment described by query. To address this task, existing methods can be roughly grouped into two groups: 1) propose-and-rank models first define a set of hand-designed moment candidates and then find out the best-matching one. 2) proposal-free models directly predict two temporal boundaries of the referential moment from frames. Currently, almost all the propose-and-rank methods have inferior performance than proposal-free counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the performance of propose-and-rank models are underestimated due to the predefined manners: 1) Hand-designed rules are hard to guarantee the complete coverage of targeted segments. 2) Densely sampled candidate moments cause redundant computation and degrade the performance of ranking process. To this end, we propose a novel model termed LPNet (Learnable Proposal Network for NLVL) with a fixed set of learnable moment proposals. The position and length of these proposals are dynamically adjusted during training process. Moreover, a boundary-aware loss has been proposed to leverage frame-level information and further improve performance. Extensive ablations on two challenging NLVL benchmarks have demonstrated the effectiveness of LPNet over existing state-of-the-art methods.
Court’s view generation is a novel but essential task for legal AI, aiming at improving the interpretability of judgment prediction results and enabling automatic legal document generation. While prior text-to-text natural language generation (NLG) approaches can be used to address this problem, neglecting the confounding bias from the data generation mechanism can limit the model performance, and the bias may pollute the learning outcomes. In this paper, we propose a novel Attentional and Counterfactual based Natural Language Generation (AC-NLG) method, consisting of an attentional encoder and a pair of innovative counterfactual decoders. The attentional encoder leverages the plaintiff’s claim and fact description as input to learn a claim-aware encoder from which the claim-related information in fact description can be emphasized. The counterfactual decoders are employed to eliminate the confounding bias in data and generate judgment-discriminative court’s views (both supportive and non-supportive views) by incorporating with a synergistic judgment predictive model. Comprehensive experiments show the effectiveness of our method under both quantitative and qualitative evaluation metrics.
Video dialog is a new and challenging task, which requires the agent to answer questions combining video information with dialog history. And different from single-turn video question answering, the additional dialog history is important for video dialog, which often includes contextual information for the question. Existing visual dialog methods mainly use RNN to encode the dialog history as a single vector representation, which might be rough and straightforward. Some more advanced methods utilize hierarchical structure, attention and memory mechanisms, which still lack an explicit reasoning process. In this paper, we introduce a novel progressive inference mechanism for video dialog, which progressively updates query information based on dialog history and video content until the agent think the information is sufficient and unambiguous. In order to tackle the multi-modal fusion problem, we propose a cross-transformer module, which could learn more fine-grained and comprehensive interactions both inside and between the modalities. And besides answer generation, we also consider question generation, which is more challenging but significant for a complete video dialog system. We evaluate our method on two large-scale datasets, and the extensive experiments show the effectiveness of our method.
In this paper, we focus on natural language video localization: localizing (ie, grounding) a natural language description in a long and untrimmed video sequence. All currently published models for addressing this problem can be categorized into two types: (i) top-down approach: it does classification and regression for a set of pre-cut video segment candidates; (ii) bottom-up approach: it directly predicts probabilities for each video frame as the temporal boundaries (ie, start and end time point). However, both two approaches suffer several limitations: the former is computation-intensive for densely placed candidates, while the latter has trailed the performance of the top-down counterpart thus far. To this end, we propose a novel dense bottom-up framework: DEnse Bottom-Up Grounding (DEBUG). DEBUG regards all frames falling in the ground truth segment as foreground, and each foreground frame regresses the unique distances from its location to bi-directional ground truth boundaries. Extensive experiments on three challenging benchmarks (TACoS, Charades-STA, and ActivityNet Captions) show that DEBUG is able to match the speed of bottom-up models while surpassing the performance of the state-of-the-art top-down models.