Juntao Li


2023

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Open-ended Long Text Generation via Masked Language Modeling
Xiaobo Liang | Zecheng Tang | Juntao Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-trained autoregressive (AR) language models such as BART and GPTs have dominated OPen-ended Long Text Generation (Open-LTG).However, the AR nature will decrease the inference efficiency along with the increase of generation length, which hinder their application in Open-LTG.To improve inference efficiency, we alternatively explore the potential of the pre-trained masked language models (MLMs) along with a representative iterative non-autoregressive (NAR) decoding strategy for Open-LTG.Our preliminary study shows that pre-trained MLMs can merely generate short text and will collapse for long text modeling. To enhance the long text generation capability of MLMs, we introduce two simple yet effective strategies for the iterative NAR model: dynamic sliding window attention (DSWA) and linear temperature decay (LTD). It can alleviate long-distance collapse problems and achieve longer text generation with a flexible trade-off between performance and inference speedup. Experiments on the storytelling and multi-paragraph opinionated article writing tasks show that pre-trained MLMs can achieve more than 3 × 13 × speedup with better performance than strong AR models.

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Dynamic and Efficient Inference for Text Generation via BERT Family
Xiaobo Liang | Juntao Li | Lijun Wu | Ziqiang Cao | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Despite the excellent performance of Pre-trained Language Models on many text generation tasks, they suffer from inefficient inference on computation and memory due to their large-scale parameters and the universal autoregressive decoding paradigm. In this work, we propose a novel fine-tuning method DEER, which can make a single pre-trained model support Dynamic and Efficient infERence and achieve an adaptive trade-off between model performance and latency. In particular, our critical insight is to jointly utilize the non-autoregressive (NAR) generation and dynamic parameter pruning techniques, which can flexibly control the decoding iteration steps and model sizes according to memory and latency limitations. Besides, we also explore the effectiveness of the pre-trained MLMs (i.e., the BERT family) for text generation tasks since their bidirectional attention nature is more suitable for the NAR training objective. Extensive experiments on both monolingual and multilingual pre-trained MLMs demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed DEER method by consistently achieving (1) higher BLEU scores than the strong autoregressive Transformer model on three neural machine translation tasks with 3 12 times speedup, (2) competitive performance (but with much faster inference speed) compared with the BART model on four GLGE benchmark tasks. Our code will be publicly available at GitHub https://github.com/dropreg/DEER.

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CORE: Cooperative Training of Retriever-Reranker for Effective Dialogue Response Selection
Chongyang Tao | Jiazhan Feng | Tao Shen | Chang Liu | Juntao Li | Xiubo Geng | Daxin Jiang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Establishing retrieval-based dialogue systems that can select appropriate responses from the pre-built index has gained increasing attention. Recent common practice is to construct a two-stage pipeline with a fast retriever (e.g., bi-encoder) for first-stage recall followed by a smart response reranker (e.g., cross-encoder) for precise ranking. However, existing studies either optimize the retriever and reranker in independent ways, or distill the knowledge from a pre-trained reranker into the retriever in an asynchronous way, leading to sub-optimal performance of both modules. Thus, an open question remains about how to train them for a better combination of the best of both worlds. To this end, we present a cooperative training of the response retriever and the reranker whose parameters are dynamically optimized by the ground-truth labels as well as list-wise supervision signals from each other. As a result, the two modules can learn from each other and evolve together throughout the training. Experimental results on two benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of our method.

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Towards Better Hierarchical Text Classification with Data Generation
Yue Wang | Dan Qiao | Juntao Li | Jinxiong Chang | Qishen Zhang | Zhongyi Liu | Guannan Zhang | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Hierarchical text classification (HTC) focuses on classifying one text into multiple labels, which are organized as a hierarchical taxonomy. Due to its wide involution in realistic scenarios, HTC attracts long-term attention from both industry and academia. However, the high cost of hierarchical multi-label annotation makes HTC suffer from the data scarcity problem. In view of the difficulty in balancing the controllability of multiple structural labels and text diversity, automatically generating high-quality data for HTC is challenging and under-explored. To fill this blank, we propose a novel data generation framework tailored for HTC, which can achieve both label controllability and text diversity by extracting high-quality semantic-level and phrase-level hierarchical label information. Experimental results on three benchmarks demonstrate that, compared with existing data augmentation methods, the data generated from our method can bring the most significant performance improvements of several strong HTC models. Extensive analysis confirms that the improvements yielded by our proposed method do correlate to the enhancement of label controllability and text diversity.

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Can Diffusion Model Achieve Better Performance in Text Generation ? Bridging the Gap between Training and Inference !
Zecheng Tang | Pinzheng Wang | Keyan Zhou | Juntao Li | Ziqiang Cao | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Diffusion models have been successfully adapted to text generation tasks by mapping the discrete text into the continuous space. However, there exist nonnegligible gaps between training and inference, owing to the absence of the forward process during inference. Thus, the model only predicts based on the previously generated reverse noise rather than the noise computed by the forward process. Besides, the widely-used downsampling strategy in speeding up the inference will cause the mismatch of diffusion trajectories between training and inference. To understand and mitigate the above two types of training-inference discrepancies, we launch a thorough preliminary study. Based on our observations, we propose two simple yet effective methods to bridge the gaps mentioned above, named Distance Penalty and Adaptive Decay Sampling. Extensive experiments on 6 generation tasks confirm the superiority of our methods, which can achieve 100× → 200× speedup with better performance. Our code will be released at https://github.com/CODINNLG/Bridge_Gap_Diffusion.

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Early Exit with Disentangled Representation and Equiangular Tight Frame
Yixin Ji | Jikai Wang | Juntao Li | Qiang Chen | Wenliang Chen | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Dynamic early exit has demonstrated great potential in coping with the sharply increasing number of pre-trained language model parameters, which can achieve a good trade-off between performance and efficiency. The existing early exit paradigm relies on training parametrical internal classifiers at each intermediate layer to complete specific tasks. Based on the predictions of these internal classifiers, different methods are designed to decide when to exit. Under this circumstance, each intermediate layer takes on both generic language representation learning and task-specific feature extraction, which makes each intermediate layer struggle to balance two types of backward loss signals during training. To break this dilemma, we propose an adapter method to decouple the two distinct types of representation and further introduce a non-parametric simplex equiangular tight frame classifier (ETF) for improvement. Extensive experiments on monolingual and multilingual tasks demonstrate that our method gains significant improvements over strong PLM backbones and early exit methods.

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G-SPEED: General SParse Efficient Editing MoDel
Haoke Zhang | Yue Wang | Juntao Li | Xiabing Zhou | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated incredible capabilities in understanding, generating, and manipulating languages. Through human-model interactions, LLMs can automatically understand human-issued instructions and output the expected contents, which can significantly increase working efficiency. In various types of real-world demands, editing-oriented tasks account for a considerable proportion, which involves an interactive process that entails the continuous refinement of existing texts to meet specific criteria. Due to the need for multi-round human-model interaction and the generation of complicated editing tasks, there is an emergent need for efficient general editing models. In this paper, we propose General SParse Efficient Editing MoDel (G-SPEED), which can fulfill diverse editing requirements through a single model while maintaining low computational costs. Specifically, we first propose a novel unsupervised text editing data clustering algorithm to deal with the data scarcity problem. Subsequently, we introduce a sparse editing model architecture to mitigate the inherently limited learning capabilities of small language models. The experimental outcomes indicate that G-SPEED, with its 508M parameters, can surpass LLMs equipped with 175B parameters. Our code and model checkpoints are available at https://github.com/Banner-Z/G-SPEED.

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Efficient Continue Training of Temporal Language Model with Structural Information
Zhaochen Su | Juntao Li | Zikang Zhang | Zihan Zhou | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Current language models are mainly trained on snap-shots of data gathered at a particular time, which decreases their capability to generalize over time and model language change. To model the time variable, existing works have explored temporal language models (e.g., TempoBERT) by directly incorporating the timestamp into the training process. While effective to some extent, these methods are limited by the superficial temporal information brought by timestamps, which fails to learn the inherent changes of linguistic components. In this paper, we empirically confirm that the performance of pre-trained language models (PLMs) is closely affiliated with syntactically changed tokens. Based on this observation, we propose a simple yet effective method named Syntax-Guided Temporal Language Model (SG-TLM), which could learn the inherent language changes by capturing an intrinsic relationship between the time prefix and the tokens with salient syntactic change. Experiments on two datasets and three tasks demonstrate that our model outperforms existing temporal language models in both memorization and generalization capabilities. Extensive results further confirm the effectiveness of our approach across different model frameworks, including both encoder-only and decoder-only models (e.g., LLaMA). Our code is available at https://github.com/zhaochen0110/TempoLM.

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Isotropic Representation Can Improve Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer on Multilingual Language Models
Yixin Ji | Jikai Wang | Juntao Li | Hai Ye | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

With the development of multilingual pre-trained language models (mPLMs), zero-shot cross-lingual transfer shows great potential. To further improve the performance of cross-lingual transfer, many studies have explored representation misalignment caused by morphological differences but neglected the misalignment caused by the anisotropic distribution of contextual representations. In this work, we propose enhanced isotropy and constrained code-switching for zero-shot cross-lingual transfer to alleviate the problem of misalignment caused by the anisotropic representations and maintain syntactic structural knowledge. Extensive experiments on three zero-shot cross-lingual transfer tasks demonstrate that our method gains significant improvements over strong mPLM backbones and further improves the state-of-the-art methods.

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Isotropy-Enhanced Conditional Masked Language Models
Pei Guo | Yisheng Xiao | Juntao Li | Yixin Ji | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Non-autoregressive models have been widely used for various text generation tasks to accelerate the inference process but at the cost of generation quality to some extent. To achieve a good balance between inference speedup and generation quality, iterative NAR models like CMLM and Disco are proposed. Researchers have made much follow-up progress based on them, and some recent iterative models can achieve very promising performance while maintaining significant speedup. In this paper, we give more insights into iterative NAR models by exploring the anisotropic problem, i.e., the representations of distinct predicted target tokens are similar and indiscriminative. Upon the confirmation of the anisotropic problem in iterative NAR models, we first analyze the effectiveness of the contrastive learning method and further propose the Look Neighbors strategy to enhance the learning of token representations during training. Experiments on 4 WMT datasets show that our methods consistently improve the performance as well as alleviate the anisotropic problem of the conditional masked language model, even outperforming the current SoTA result on WMT14 EN DE.

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KBioXLM: A Knowledge-anchored Biomedical Multilingual Pretrained Language Model
Lei Geng | Xu Yan | Ziqiang Cao | Juntao Li | Wenjie Li | Sujian Li | Xinjie Zhou | Yang Yang | Jun Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Most biomedical pretrained language models are monolingual and cannot handle the growing cross-lingual requirements. The scarcity of non-English domain corpora, not to mention parallel data, poses a significant hurdle in training multilingual biomedical models. Since knowledge forms the core of domain-specific corpora and can be translated into various languages accurately, we propose a model called KBioXLM, which transforms the multilingual pretrained model XLM-R into the biomedical domain using a knowledge-anchored approach. We achieve a biomedical multilingual corpus by incorporating three granularity knowledge alignments (entity, fact, and passage levels) into monolingual corpora. Then we design three corresponding training tasks (entity masking, relation masking, and passage relation prediction) and continue training on top of the XLM-R model to enhance its domain cross-lingual ability. To validate the effectiveness of our model, we translate the English benchmarks of multiple tasks into Chinese. Experimental results demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms monolingual and multilingual pretrained models in cross-lingual zero-shot and few-shot scenarios, achieving improvements of up to 10+ points.

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INFORM : Information eNtropy based multi-step reasoning FOR large language Models
Chuyue Zhou | Wangjie You | Juntao Li | Jing Ye | Kehai Chen | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated exceptional performance in reasoning tasks with dedicated Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompts. Further enhancing CoT prompts with exquisite exemplars can significantly improve reasoning performance.However, the effectiveness of CoT prompts may fluctuate dramatically with different choices of in-context examples. Additionally, manual construction of rationale steps can be time-consuming, presenting challenges for the widespread adoption of CoT prompting. In this work, we propose a novel approach by introducing information entropy (IE) as a criteria on for CoT prompt selection. We extend this criterion to the CoT generation and inference stages, automatically generating CoT prompts with higher information entropy scores and adaptively determining the number of samples. These three stages together form our proposed information- entropy-based multi-step reasoning for large language models, named INFORM. Our experiments across seven reasoning benchmarks utilizing two language models(GPT-3.5-Turbo and text-davinci-003) demonstrate the superiority of INFORM both in performance and efficiency.

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Beware of Model Collapse! Fast and Stable Test-time Adaptation for Robust Question Answering
Yi Su | Yixin Ji | Juntao Li | Hai Ye | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although pre-trained language models (PLM) have achieved great success in question answering (QA), their robustness is still insufficient to support their practical applications, especially in the face of distribution shifts. Recently, test-time adaptation (TTA) has shown great potential for solving this problem, which adapts the model to fit the test samples at test time. However, TTA sometimes causes model collapse, making almost all the model outputs incorrect, which has raised concerns about its stability and reliability. In this paper, we delve into why TTA causes model collapse and find that the imbalanced label distribution inherent in QA is the reason for it. To address this problem, we propose Anti-Collapse Fast test-time adaptation (Anti-CF), which utilizes the source model‘s output to regularize the update of the adapted model during test time. We further design an efficient side block to reduce its inference time. Extensive experiments on various distribution shift scenarios and pre-trained language models (e.g., XLM-RoBERTa, BLOOM) demonstrate that our method can achieve comparable or better results than previous TTA methods at a speed close to vanilla forward propagation, which is 1.8× to 4.4× speedup compared to previous TTA methods.

2022

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SelfMix: Robust Learning against Textual Label Noise with Self-Mixup Training
Dan Qiao | Chenchen Dai | Yuyang Ding | Juntao Li | Qiang Chen | Wenliang Chen | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The conventional success of textual classification relies on annotated data, and the new paradigm of pre-trained language models (PLMs) still requires a few labeled data for downstream tasks. However, in real-world applications, label noise inevitably exists in training data, damaging the effectiveness, robustness, and generalization of the models constructed on such data. Recently, remarkable achievements have been made to mitigate this dilemma in visual data, while only a few explore textual data. To fill this gap, we present SelfMix, a simple yet effective method, to handle label noise in text classification tasks. SelfMix uses the Gaussian Mixture Model to separate samples and leverages semi-supervised learning. Unlike previous works requiring multiple models, our method utilizes the dropout mechanism on a single model to reduce the confirmation bias in self-training and introduces a textual level mixup training strategy. Experimental results on three text classification benchmarks with different types of text show that the performance of our proposed method outperforms these strong baselines designed for both textual and visual data under different noise ratios and noise types. Our anonymous code is available at https://github.com/noise-learning/SelfMix.

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Gated Mechanism Enhanced Multi-Task Learning for Dialog Routing
Ziming Huang | Zhuoxuan Jiang | Ke Wang | Juntao Li | Shanshan Feng | Xian-Ling Mao
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Currently, human-bot symbiosis dialog systems, e.g. pre- and after-sales in E-commerce, are ubiquitous, and the dialog routing component is essential to improve the overall efficiency, reduce human resource cost and increase user experience. To satisfy this requirement, existing methods are mostly heuristic and cannot obtain high-quality performance. In this paper, we investigate the important problem by thoroughly mining both the data-to-task and task-to-task knowledge among various kinds of dialog data. To achieve the above target, we propose a comprehensive and general solution with multi-task learning framework, specifically including a novel dialog encoder and two tailored gated mechanism modules. The proposed Gated Mechanism enhanced Multi-task Model (G3M) can play the role of hierarchical information filtering and is non-invasive to the existing dialog systems. Experiments on two datasets collected from the real world demonstrate our method’s effectiveness and the results achieve the state-of-the-art performance by relatively increasing 8.7%/11.8% on RMSE metric and 2.2%/4.4% on F1 metric.

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Improving Temporal Generalization of Pre-trained Language Models with Lexical Semantic Change
Zhaochen Su | Zecheng Tang | Xinyan Guan | Lijun Wu | Min Zhang | Juntao Li
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent research has revealed that neural language models at scale suffer from poor temporal generalization capability, i.e., language model pre-trained on static data from past years performs worse over time on emerging data. Existing methods mainly perform continual training to mitigate such a misalignment. While effective to some extent but is far from being addressed on both the language modeling and downstream tasks. In this paper, we empirically observe that temporal generalization is closely affiliated with lexical semantic change, which is one of the essential phenomena of natural languages. Based on this observation, we propose a simple yet effective lexical-level masking strategy to post-train a converged language model. Experiments on two pre-trained language models, two different classification tasks, and four benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method over existing temporal adaptation methods, i.e., continual training with new data. Our code is available at https://github.com/zhaochen0110/LMLM.

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JANUS: Joint Autoregressive and Non-autoregressive Training with Auxiliary Loss for Sequence Generation
Xiaobo Liang | Lijun Wu | Juntao Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Transformer-based autoregressive and non-autoregressive models have played an essential role in sequence generation tasks. The autoregressive model can obtain excellent performance, while the non-autoregressive model brings fast decoding speed for inference. In this paper, we propose JANUS, a Joint Autoregressive and Non-autoregressive training method using aUxiliary losS to enhance the model performance in both AR and NAR manner simultaneously and effectively alleviate the problem of distribution discrepancy.Further, we pre-train BART with JANUS on a large corpus with minimal cost (16 GPU days) and make the BART-JANUS capable of non-autoregressive generation, demonstrating that our approach can transfer the AR knowledge to NAR. Empirically, we show our approach and BART-JANUS can achieve significant improvement on multiple generation tasks, including machine translation and GLGE benchmarks. Our code is available at Github.

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Robust Question Answering against Distribution Shifts with Test-Time Adaption: An Empirical Study
Hai Ye | Yuyang Ding | Juntao Li | Hwee Tou Ng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

A deployed question answering (QA) model can easily fail when the test data has a distribution shift compared to the training data. Robustness tuning (RT) methods have been widely studied to enhance model robustness against distribution shifts before model deployment. However, can we improve a model after deployment? To answer this question, we evaluate test-time adaptation (TTA) to improve a model after deployment. We first introduce ColdQA, a unified evaluation benchmark for robust QA against text corruption and changes in language and domain. We then evaluate previous TTA methods on ColdQA and compare them to RT methods. We also propose a novel TTA method called online imitation learning (OIL). Through extensive experiments, we find that TTA is comparable to RT methods, and applying TTA after RT can significantly boost the performance on ColdQA. Our proposed OIL improves TTA to be more robust to variation in hyper-parameters and test distributions over time.

2021

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Learning to Organize a Bag of Words into Sentences with Neural Networks: An Empirical Study
Chongyang Tao | Shen Gao | Juntao Li | Yansong Feng | Dongyan Zhao | Rui Yan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Sequential information, a.k.a., orders, is assumed to be essential for processing a sequence with recurrent neural network or convolutional neural network based encoders. However, is it possible to encode natural languages without orders? Given a bag of words from a disordered sentence, humans may still be able to understand what those words mean by reordering or reconstructing them. Inspired by such an intuition, in this paper, we perform a study to investigate how “order” information takes effects in natural language learning. By running comprehensive comparisons, we quantitatively compare the ability of several representative neural models to organize sentences from a bag of words under three typical scenarios, and summarize some empirical findings and challenges, which can shed light on future research on this line of work.

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Enhancing the Open-Domain Dialogue Evaluation in Latent Space
Zhangming Chan | Lemao Liu | Juntao Li | Haisong Zhang | Dongyan Zhao | Shuming Shi | Rui Yan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2020

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Feature Adaptation of Pre-Trained Language Models across Languages and Domains with Robust Self-Training
Hai Ye | Qingyu Tan | Ruidan He | Juntao Li | Hwee Tou Ng | Lidong Bing
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Adapting pre-trained language models (PrLMs) (e.g., BERT) to new domains has gained much attention recently. Instead of fine-tuning PrLMs as done in most previous work, we investigate how to adapt the features of PrLMs to new domains without fine-tuning. We explore unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) in this paper. With the features from PrLMs, we adapt the models trained with labeled data from the source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Self-training is widely used for UDA, and it predicts pseudo labels on the target domain data for training. However, the predicted pseudo labels inevitably include noise, which will negatively affect training a robust model. To improve the robustness of self-training, in this paper we present class-aware feature self-distillation (CFd) to learn discriminative features from PrLMs, in which PrLM features are self-distilled into a feature adaptation module and the features from the same class are more tightly clustered. We further extend CFd to a cross-language setting, in which language discrepancy is studied. Experiments on two monolingual and multilingual Amazon review datasets show that CFd can consistently improve the performance of self-training in cross-domain and cross-language settings.

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Plan-CVAE: A Planning-based Conditional Variational Autoencoder for Story Generation
Lin Wang | Juntao Li | Rui Yan | Dongyan Zhao
Proceedings of the 19th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

Story generation is a challenging task of automatically creating natural languages to describe a sequence of events, which requires outputting text with not only a consistent topic but also novel wordings. Although many approaches have been proposed and obvious progress has been made on this task, there is still a large room for improvement, especially for improving thematic consistency and wording diversity. To mitigate the gap between generated stories and those written by human writers, in this paper, we propose a planning-based conditional variational autoencoder, namely Plan-CVAE, which first plans a keyword sequence and then generates a story based on the keyword sequence. In our method, the keywords planning strategy is used to improve thematic consistency while the CVAE module allows enhancing wording diversity. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset confirm that our proposed method can generate stories with both thematic consistency and wording novelty, and outperforms state-of-the-art methods on both automatic metrics and human evaluations.

2019

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Are Training Samples Correlated? Learning to Generate Dialogue Responses with Multiple References
Lisong Qiu | Juntao Li | Wei Bi | Dongyan Zhao | Rui Yan
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Due to its potential applications, open-domain dialogue generation has become popular and achieved remarkable progress in recent years, but sometimes suffers from generic responses. Previous models are generally trained based on 1-to-1 mapping from an input query to its response, which actually ignores the nature of 1-to-n mapping in dialogue that there may exist multiple valid responses corresponding to the same query. In this paper, we propose to utilize the multiple references by considering the correlation of different valid responses and modeling the 1-to-n mapping with a novel two-step generation architecture. The first generation phase extracts the common features of different responses which, combined with distinctive features obtained in the second phase, can generate multiple diverse and appropriate responses. Experimental results show that our proposed model can effectively improve the quality of response and outperform existing neural dialogue models on both automatic and human evaluations.

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Bridging the Gap: Improve Part-of-speech Tagging for Chinese Social Media Texts with Foreign Words
Dingmin Wang | Meng Fang | Yan Song | Juntao Li
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Semantic Deep Learning (SemDeep-5)

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Modeling Personalization in Continuous Space for Response Generation via Augmented Wasserstein Autoencoders
Zhangming Chan | Juntao Li | Xiaopeng Yang | Xiuying Chen | Wenpeng Hu | Dongyan Zhao | Rui Yan
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Variational autoencoders (VAEs) and Wasserstein autoencoders (WAEs) have achieved noticeable progress in open-domain response generation. Through introducing latent variables in continuous space, these models are capable of capturing utterance-level semantics, e.g., topic, syntactic properties, and thus can generate informative and diversified responses. In this work, we improve the WAE for response generation. In addition to the utterance-level information, we also model user-level information in latent continue space. Specifically, we embed user-level and utterance-level information into two multimodal distributions, and combine these two multimodal distributions into a mixed distribution. This mixed distribution will be used as the prior distribution of WAE in our proposed model, named as PersonaWAE. Experimental results on a large-scale real-world dataset confirm the superiority of our model for generating informative and personalized responses, where both automatic and human evaluations outperform state-of-the-art models.

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Stick to the Facts: Learning towards a Fidelity-oriented E-Commerce Product Description Generation
Zhangming Chan | Xiuying Chen | Yongliang Wang | Juntao Li | Zhiqiang Zhang | Kun Gai | Dongyan Zhao | Rui Yan
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Different from other text generation tasks, in product description generation, it is of vital importance to generate faithful descriptions that stick to the product attribute information. However, little attention has been paid to this problem. To bridge this gap we propose a model named Fidelity-oriented Product Description Generator (FPDG). FPDG takes the entity label of each word into account, since the product attribute information is always conveyed by entity words. Specifically, we first propose a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) decoder based on the Entity-label-guided Long Short-Term Memory (ELSTM) cell, taking both the embedding and the entity label of each word as input. Second, we establish a keyword memory that stores the entity labels as keys and keywords as values, and FPDG will attend to keywords through attending to their entity labels. Experiments conducted a large-scale real-world product description dataset show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance in terms of both traditional generation metrics as well as human evaluations. Specifically, FPDG increases the fidelity of the generated descriptions by 25%.

2018

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Generating Classical Chinese Poems via Conditional Variational Autoencoder and Adversarial Training
Juntao Li | Yan Song | Haisong Zhang | Dongmin Chen | Shuming Shi | Dongyan Zhao | Rui Yan
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

It is a challenging task to automatically compose poems with not only fluent expressions but also aesthetic wording. Although much attention has been paid to this task and promising progress is made, there exist notable gaps between automatically generated ones with those created by humans, especially on the aspects of term novelty and thematic consistency. Towards filling the gap, in this paper, we propose a conditional variational autoencoder with adversarial training for classical Chinese poem generation, where the autoencoder part generates poems with novel terms and a discriminator is applied to adversarially learn their thematic consistency with their titles. Experimental results on a large poetry corpus confirm the validity and effectiveness of our model, where its automatic and human evaluation scores outperform existing models.