Jyotsana Khatri


2022

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HiNER: A large Hindi Named Entity Recognition Dataset
Rudra Murthy | Pallab Bhattacharjee | Rahul Sharnagat | Jyotsana Khatri | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a foundational NLP task that aims to provide class labels like Person, Location, Organisation, Time, and Number to words in free text. Named Entities can also be multi-word expressions where the additional I-O-B annotation information helps label them during the NER annotation process. While English and European languages have considerable annotated data for the NER task, Indian languages lack on that front- both in terms of quantity and following annotation standards. This paper releases a significantly sized standard-abiding Hindi NER dataset containing 109,146 sentences and 2,220,856 tokens, annotated with 11 tags. We discuss the dataset statistics in all their essential detail and provide an in-depth analysis of the NER tag-set used with our data. The statistics of tag-set in our dataset shows a healthy per-tag distribution especially for prominent classes like Person, Location and Organisation. Since the proof of resource-effectiveness is in building models with the resource and testing the model on benchmark data and against the leader-board entries in shared tasks, we do the same with the aforesaid data. We use different language models to perform the sequence labelling task for NER and show the efficacy of our data by performing a comparative evaluation with models trained on another dataset available for the Hindi NER task. Our dataset helps achieve a weighted F1 score of 88.78 with all the tags and 92.22 when we collapse the tag-set, as discussed in the paper. To the best of our knowledge, no available dataset meets the standards of volume (amount) and variability (diversity), as far as Hindi NER is concerned. We fill this gap through this work, which we hope will significantly help NLP for Hindi. We release this dataset with our code and models for further research at https://github.com/cfiltnlp/HiNER

2021

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Language Relatedness and Lexical Closeness can help Improve Multilingual NMT: IITBombay@MultiIndicNMT WAT2021
Jyotsana Khatri | Nikhil Saini | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Asian Translation (WAT2021)

Multilingual Neural Machine Translation has achieved remarkable performance by training a single translation model for multiple languages. This paper describes our submission (Team ID: CFILT-IITB) for the MultiIndicMT: An Indic Language Multilingual Task at WAT 2021. We train multilingual NMT systems by sharing encoder and decoder parameters with language embedding associated with each token in both encoder and decoder. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of transliteration (script conversion) for Indic languages in reducing the lexical gap for training a multilingual NMT system. Further, we show improvement in performance by training a multilingual NMT system using languages of the same family, i.e., related languages.

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Language Model Pretraining and Transfer Learning for Very Low Resource Languages
Jyotsana Khatri | Rudra Murthy | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes our submission for the shared task on Unsupervised MT and Very Low Resource Supervised MT at WMT 2021. We submitted systems for two language pairs: German ↔ Upper Sorbian (de ↔ hsb) and German-Lower Sorbian (de ↔ dsb). For de ↔ hsb, we pretrain our system using MASS (Masked Sequence to Sequence) objective and then finetune using iterative back-translation. Final finetunng is performed using the parallel data provided for translation objective. For de ↔ dsb, no parallel data is provided in the task, we use final de ↔ hsb model as initialization of the de ↔ dsb model and train it further using iterative back-translation, using the same vocabulary as used in the de ↔ hsb model.

2020

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Filtering Back-Translated Data in Unsupervised Neural Machine Translation
Jyotsana Khatri | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Unsupervised neural machine translation (NMT) utilizes only monolingual data for training. The quality of back-translated data plays an important role in the performance of NMT systems. In back-translation, all generated pseudo parallel sentence pairs are not of the same quality. Taking inspiration from domain adaptation where in-domain sentences are given more weight in training, in this paper we propose an approach to filter back-translated data as part of the training process of unsupervised NMT. Our approach gives more weight to good pseudo parallel sentence pairs in the back-translation phase. We calculate the weight of each pseudo parallel sentence pair using sentence-wise round-trip BLEU score which is normalized batch-wise. We compare our approach with the current state of the art approaches for unsupervised NMT.

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Generating Fluent Translations from Disfluent Text Without Access to Fluent References: IIT Bombay@IWSLT2020
Nikhil Saini | Jyotsana Khatri | Preethi Jyothi | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

Machine translation systems perform reasonably well when the input is well-formed speech or text. Conversational speech is spontaneous and inherently consists of many disfluencies. Producing fluent translations of disfluent source text would typically require parallel disfluent to fluent training data. However, fluent translations of spontaneous speech are an additional resource that is tedious to obtain. This work describes the submission of IIT Bombay to the Conversational Speech Translation challenge at IWSLT 2020. We specifically tackle the problem of disfluency removal in disfluent-to-fluent text-to-text translation assuming no access to fluent references during training. Common patterns of disfluency are extracted from disfluent references and a noise induction model is used to simulate them starting from a clean monolingual corpus. This synthetically constructed dataset is then considered as a proxy for labeled data during training. We also make use of additional fluent text in the target language to help generate fluent translations. This work uses no fluent references during training and beats a baseline model by a margin of 4.21 and 3.11 BLEU points where the baseline uses disfluent and fluent references, respectively. Index Terms- disfluency removal, machine translation, noise induction, leveraging monolingual data, denoising for disfluency removal.

2019

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Utilizing Monolingual Data in NMT for Similar Languages: Submission to Similar Language Translation Task
Jyotsana Khatri | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

This paper describes our submission to Shared Task on Similar Language Translation in Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT 2019). We submitted three systems for Hindi -> Nepali direction in which we have examined the performance of a RNN based NMT system, a semi-supervised NMT system where monolingual data of both languages is utilized using the architecture by and a system trained with extra synthetic sentences generated using copy of source and target sentences without using any additional monolingual data.