Multi-hop Question Answering (QA) is a challenging task since it requires an accurate aggregation of information from multiple context paragraphs and a thorough understanding of the underlying reasoning chains. Recent work in multi-hop QA has shown that performance can be boosted by first decomposing the questions into simpler, single-hop questions. In this paper, we explore one additional utility of the multi-hop decomposition from the perspective of explainable NLP: to create explanation by probing a neural QA model with them. We hypothesize that in doing so, users will be better able to predict when the underlying QA system will give the correct answer. Through human participant studies, we verify that exposing the decomposition probes and answers to the probes to users can increase their ability to predict system performance on a question instance basis. We show that decomposition is an effective form of probing QA systems as well as a promising approach to explanation generation. In-depth analyses show the need for improvements in decomposition systems.
Automated storytelling has long captured the attention of researchers for the ubiquity of narratives in everyday life. However, it is challenging to maintain coherence and stay on-topictoward a specific ending when generating narratives with neural language models. In this paper, we introduce Story generation with ReaderModels (StoRM), a framework in which areader model is used to reason about the storyshould progress. A reader model infers whata human reader believes about the concepts,entities, and relations about the fictional storyworld. We show how an explicit reader modelrepresented as a knowledge graph affords the storycoherence and provides controllability in theform of achieving a given story world stategoal. Experiments show that our model produces significantly more coherent and on-topicstories, outperforming baselines in dimensionsincluding plot plausibility and staying on topic
Defining action spaces for conversational agents and optimizing their decision-making process with reinforcement learning is an enduring challenge. Common practice has been to use handcrafted dialog acts, or the output vocabulary, e.g. in neural encoder decoders, as the action spaces. Both have their own limitations. This paper proposes a novel latent action framework that treats the action spaces of an end-to-end dialog agent as latent variables and develops unsupervised methods in order to induce its own action space from the data. Comprehensive experiments are conducted examining both continuous and discrete action types and two different optimization methods based on stochastic variational inference. Results show that the proposed latent actions achieve superior empirical performance improvement over previous word-level policy gradient methods on both DealOrNoDeal and MultiWoz dialogs. Our detailed analysis also provides insights about various latent variable approaches for policy learning and can serve as a foundation for developing better latent actions in future research.
Dialogue state tracker is the core part of a spoken dialogue system. It estimates the beliefs of possible user’s goals at every dialogue turn. However, for most current approaches, it’s difficult to scale to large dialogue domains. They have one or more of following limitations: (a) Some models don’t work in the situation where slot values in ontology changes dynamically; (b) The number of model parameters is proportional to the number of slots; (c) Some models extract features based on hand-crafted lexicons. To tackle these challenges, we propose StateNet, a universal dialogue state tracker. It is independent of the number of values, shares parameters across all slots, and uses pre-trained word vectors instead of explicit semantic dictionaries. Our experiments on two datasets show that our approach not only overcomes the limitations, but also significantly outperforms the performance of state-of-the-art approaches.
Dialogue state tracking (DST), when formulated as a supervised learning problem, relies on labelled data. Since dialogue state annotation usually requires labelling all turns of a single dialogue and utilizing context information, it is very expensive to annotate all available unlabelled data. In this paper, a novel cost-sensitive active learning framework is proposed based on a set of new dialogue-level query strategies. This is the first attempt to apply active learning for dialogue state tracking. Experiments on DSTC2 show that active learning with mixed data query strategies can effectively achieve the same DST performance with significantly less data annotation compared to traditional training approaches.