Kaiyu Huang


2023

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ConvGQR: Generative Query Reformulation for Conversational Search
Fengran Mo | Kelong Mao | Yutao Zhu | Yihong Wu | Kaiyu Huang | Jian-Yun Nie
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In conversational search, the user’s real search intent for the current conversation turn is dependent on the previous conversation history. It is challenging to determine a good search query from the whole conversation context. To avoid the expensive re-training of the query encoder, most existing methods try to learn a rewriting model to de-contextualize the current query by mimicking the manual query rewriting. However, manually rewritten queries are not always the best search queries. Thus, training a rewriting model on them would lead to sub-optimal queries. Another useful information to enhance the search query is the potential answer to the question. In this paper, we propose ConvGQR, a new framework to reformulate conversational queries based on generative pre-trained language models (PLMs), one for query rewriting and another for generating potential answers. By combining both, ConvGQR can produce better search queries. In addition, to relate query reformulation to the retrieval task, we propose a knowledge infusion mechanism to optimize both query reformulation and retrieval. Extensive experiments on four conversational search datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of ConvGQR.

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Knowledge Transfer in Incremental Learning for Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Kaiyu Huang | Peng Li | Jin Ma | Ting Yao | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In the real-world scenario, a longstanding goal of multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) is that a single model can incrementally adapt to new language pairs without accessing previous training data. In this scenario, previous studies concentrate on overcoming catastrophic forgetting while lacking encouragement to learn new knowledge from incremental language pairs, especially when the incremental language is not related to the set of original languages. To better acquire new knowledge, we propose a knowledge transfer method that can efficiently adapt original MNMT models to diverse incremental language pairs. The method flexibly introduces the knowledge from an external model into original models, which encourages the models to learn new language pairs, completing the procedure of knowledge transfer. Moreover, all original parameters are frozen to ensure that translation qualities on original language pairs are not degraded. Experimental results show that our method can learn new knowledge from diverse language pairs incrementally meanwhile maintaining performance on original language pairs, outperforming various strong baselines in incremental learning for MNMT.

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Continual Learning for Multilingual Neural Machine Translation via Dual Importance-based Model Division
Junpeng Liu | Kaiyu Huang | Hao Yu | Jiuyi Li | Jinsong Su | Degen Huang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A persistent goal of multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) is to continually adapt the model to support new language pairs or improve some current language pairs without accessing the previous training data. To achieve this, the existing methods primarily focus on preventing catastrophic forgetting by making compromises between the original and new language pairs, leading to sub-optimal performance on both translation tasks. To mitigate this problem, we propose a dual importance-based model division method to divide the model parameters into two parts and separately model the translation of the original and new tasks. Specifically, we first remove the parameters that are negligible to the original tasks but essential to the new tasks to obtain a pruned model, which is responsible for the original translation tasks. Then we expand the pruned model with external parameters and fine-tune the newly added parameters with new training data. The whole fine-tuned model will be used for the new translation tasks. Experimental results show that our method can efficiently adapt the original model to various new translation tasks while retaining the performance of the original tasks. Further analyses demonstrate that our method consistently outperforms several strong baselines under different incremental translation scenarios.

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Learn and Consolidate: Continual Adaptation for Zero-Shot and Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Kaiyu Huang | Peng Li | Junpeng Liu | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although existing multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) models have demonstrated remarkable performance to handle multiple translation directions in a single model and achieved zero-shot translation between language pairs unseen in training, they still suffer from relatively poor translation qualities for some language pairs. A practical scenario is that how to continually update MNMT models for both supervised and zero-shot translations when limited new data arrives. To this end, we propose a two-stage approach that encourages original models to acquire language-agnostic multilingual representations from new data, and preserves the model architecture without introducing parameters. Experimental results and further analysis demonstrate that our method can efficiently improve performance of existing MNMT models in translation directions where they are initially weak, and mitigates the degeneration in the original well-performing translation directions, offering flexibility in the real-world scenario.

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DUTNLP System for the WMT2023 Discourse-Level Literary Translation
Anqi Zhao | Kaiyu Huang | Hao Yu | Degen Huang
Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes the submission of DUTNLP Lab submission to WMT23 Discourse-Level Literary Translation in the Chinese to English translation direction under unconstrained conditions. Our primary system aims to leverage a large language model with various prompt strategies, which can fully investigate the potential capabilities of large language models for discourse-level neural machine translation. Moreover, we test a widely used discourse-level machine translation model, G-transformer, with different training strategies. In our experimental results, the method with large language models achieves a BLEU score of 28.16, while the fine-tuned method scores 25.26. These findings indicate that selecting appropriate prompt strategies based on large language models can significantly improve translation performance compared to traditional model training methods.

2022

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Adaptive Token-level Cross-lingual Feature Mixing for Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Junpeng Liu | Kaiyu Huang | Jiuyi Li | Huan Liu | Jinsong Su | Degen Huang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multilingual neural machine translation aims to translate multiple language pairs in a single model and has shown great success thanks to the knowledge transfer across languages with the shared parameters. Despite promising, this share-all paradigm suffers from insufficient ability to capture language-specific features. Currently, the common practice is to insert or search language-specific networks to balance the shared and specific features. However, those two types of features are not sufficient enough to model the complex commonality and divergence across languages, such as the locally shared features among similar languages, which leads to sub-optimal transfer, especially in massively multilingual translation. In this paper, we propose a novel token-level feature mixing method that enables the model to capture different features and dynamically determine the feature sharing across languages. Based on the observation that the tokens in the multilingual model are usually shared by different languages, we we insert a feature mixing layer into each Transformer sublayer and model each token representation as a mix of different features, with a proportion indicating its feature preference. In this way, we can perform fine-grained feature sharing and achieve better multilingual transfer. Experimental results on multilingual datasets show that our method outperforms various strong baselines and can be extended to zero-shot translation. Further analyses reveal that our method can capture different linguistic features and bridge the representation gap across languages.

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Entropy-Based Vocabulary Substitution for Incremental Learning in Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Kaiyu Huang | Peng Li | Jin Ma | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In a practical real-world scenario, the longstanding goal is that a universal multilingual translation model can be incrementally updated when new language pairs arrive. Specifically, the initial vocabulary only covers some of the words in new languages, which hurts the translation quality for incremental learning. Although existing approaches attempt to address this issue by replacing the original vocabulary with a rebuilt vocabulary or constructing independent language-specific vocabularies, these methods can not meet the following three demands simultaneously: (1) High translation quality for original and incremental languages, (2) low cost for model training, (3) low time overhead for preprocessing. In this work, we propose an entropy-based vocabulary substitution (EVS) method that just needs to walk through new language pairs for incremental learning in a large-scale multilingual data updating while remaining the size of the vocabulary. Our method has access to learn new knowledge from updated training samples incrementally while keeping high translation quality for original language pairs, alleviating the issue of catastrophic forgetting. Results of experiments show that EVS can achieve better performance and save excess overhead for incremental learning in the multilingual machine translation task.

2021

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DUTNLP Machine Translation System for WMT21 Triangular Translation Task
Huan Liu | Junpeng Liu | Kaiyu Huang | Degen Huang
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper describes DUT-NLP Lab’s submission to the WMT-21 triangular machine translation shared task. The participants are not allowed to use other data and the translation direction of this task is Russian-to-Chinese. In this task, we use the Transformer as our baseline model, and integrate several techniques to enhance the performance of the baseline, including data filtering, data selection, fine-tuning, and post-editing. Further, to make use of the English resources, such as Russian/English and Chinese/English parallel data, the relationship triangle is constructed by multilingual neural machine translation systems. As a result, our submission achieves a BLEU score of 21.9 in Russian-to-Chinese.

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Segment, Mask, and Predict: Augmenting Chinese Word Segmentation with Self-Supervision
Mieradilijiang Maimaiti | Yang Liu | Yuanhang Zheng | Gang Chen | Kaiyu Huang | Ji Zhang | Huanbo Luan | Maosong Sun
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent state-of-the-art (SOTA) effective neural network methods and fine-tuning methods based on pre-trained models (PTM) have been used in Chinese word segmentation (CWS), and they achieve great results. However, previous works focus on training the models with the fixed corpus at every iteration. The intermediate generated information is also valuable. Besides, the robustness of the previous neural methods is limited by the large-scale annotated data. There are a few noises in the annotated corpus. Limited efforts have been made by previous studies to deal with such problems. In this work, we propose a self-supervised CWS approach with a straightforward and effective architecture. First, we train a word segmentation model and use it to generate the segmentation results. Then, we use a revised masked language model (MLM) to evaluate the quality of the segmentation results based on the predictions of the MLM. Finally, we leverage the evaluations to aid the training of the segmenter by improved minimum risk training. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms previous methods on 9 different CWS datasets with single criterion training and multiple criteria training and achieves better robustness.

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Enhancing Chinese Word Segmentation via Pseudo Labels for Practicability
Kaiyu Huang | Junpeng Liu | Degen Huang | Deyi Xiong | Zhuang Liu | Jinsong Su
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Lexicon-Based Graph Convolutional Network for Chinese Word Segmentation
Kaiyu Huang | Hao Yu | Junpeng Liu | Wei Liu | Jingxiang Cao | Degen Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Precise information of word boundary can alleviate the problem of lexical ambiguity to improve the performance of natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Thus, Chinese word segmentation (CWS) is a fundamental task in NLP. Due to the development of pre-trained language models (PLM), pre-trained knowledge can help neural methods solve the main problems of the CWS in significant measure. Existing methods have already achieved high performance on several benchmarks (e.g., Bakeoff-2005). However, recent outstanding studies are limited by the small-scale annotated corpus. To further improve the performance of CWS methods based on fine-tuning the PLMs, we propose a novel neural framework, LBGCN, which incorporates a lexicon-based graph convolutional network into the Transformer encoder. Experimental results on five benchmarks and four cross-domain datasets show the lexicon-based graph convolutional network successfully captures the information of candidate words and helps to improve performance on the benchmarks (Bakeoff-2005 and CTB6) and the cross-domain datasets (SIGHAN-2010). Further experiments and analyses demonstrate that our proposed framework effectively models the lexicon to enhance the ability of basic neural frameworks and strengthens the robustness in the cross-domain scenario.

2020

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A Joint Multiple Criteria Model in Transfer Learning for Cross-domain Chinese Word Segmentation
Kaiyu Huang | Degen Huang | Zhuang Liu | Fengran Mo
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Word-level information is important in natural language processing (NLP), especially for the Chinese language due to its high linguistic complexity. Chinese word segmentation (CWS) is an essential task for Chinese downstream NLP tasks. Existing methods have already achieved a competitive performance for CWS on large-scale annotated corpora. However, the accuracy of the method will drop dramatically when it handles an unsegmented text with lots of out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words. In addition, there are many different segmentation criteria for addressing different requirements of downstream NLP tasks. Excessive amounts of models with saving different criteria will generate the explosive growth of the total parameters. To this end, we propose a joint multiple criteria model that shares all parameters to integrate different segmentation criteria into one model. Besides, we utilize a transfer learning method to improve the performance of OOV words. Our proposed method is evaluated by designing comprehensive experiments on multiple benchmark datasets (e.g., Bakeoff 2005, Bakeoff 2008 and SIGHAN 2010). Our method achieves the state-of-the-art performances on all datasets. Importantly, our method also shows a competitive practicability and generalization ability for the CWS task.

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Context-Aware Word Segmentation for Chinese Real-World Discourse
Kaiyu Huang | Junpeng Liu | Jingxiang Cao | Degen Huang
Proceedings of the Second International Workshop of Discourse Processing

Previous neural approaches achieve significant progress for Chinese word segmentation (CWS) as a sentence-level task, but it suffers from limitations on real-world scenario. In this paper, we address this issue with a context-aware method and optimize the solution at document-level. This paper proposes a three-step strategy to improve the performance for discourse CWS. First, the method utilizes an auxiliary segmenter to remedy the limitation on pre-segmenter. Then the context-aware algorithm computes the confidence of each split. The maximum probability path is reconstructed via this algorithm. Besides, in order to evaluate the performance in discourse, we build a new benchmark consisting of the latest news and Chinese medical articles. Extensive experiments on this benchmark show that our proposed method achieves a competitive performance on a document-level real-world scenario for CWS.

2016

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Research on attention memory networks as a model for learning natural language inference
Zhuang Liu | Degen Huang | Jing Zhang | Kaiyu Huang
Proceedings of the Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP