Kaizhu Huang


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Learning by Analogy: Diverse Questions Generation in Math Word Problem
Zihao Zhou | Maizhen Ning | Qiufeng Wang | Jie Yao | Wei Wang | Xiaowei Huang | Kaizhu Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Solving math word problem (MWP) with AI techniques has recently made great progress with the success of deep neural networks (DNN), but it is far from being solved. We argue that the ability of learning by analogy is essential for an MWP solver to better understand same problems which may typically be formulated in diverse ways. However most existing works exploit the shortcut learning to train MWP solvers simply based on samples with a single question. In lack of diverse questions, these methods merely learn shallow heuristics. In this paper, we make a first attempt to solve MWPs by generating diverse yet consistent questions/equations. Given a typical MWP including the scenario description, question, and equation (i.e., answer), we first generate multiple consistent equations via a group of heuristic rules. We then feed them to a question generator together with the scenario to obtain the corresponding diverse questions, forming a new MWP with a variety of questions and equations. Finally we engage a data filter to remove those unreasonable MWPs, keeping the high-quality augmented ones. To evaluate the ability of learning by analogy for an MWP solver, we generate a new MWP dataset (called DiverseMath23K) with diverse questions by extending the current benchmark Math23K. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can generate high-quality diverse questions with corresponding equations, further leading to performance improvement on Diverse-Math23K. The code and dataset is available at: https://github.com/zhouzihao501/DiverseMWP.

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Prompt-based Zero-shot Text Classification with Conceptual Knowledge
Yuqi Wang | Wei Wang | Qi Chen | Kaizhu Huang | Anh Nguyen | Suparna De
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 4: Student Research Workshop)

In recent years, pre-trained language models have garnered significant attention due to their effectiveness, which stems from the rich knowledge acquired during pre-training. To mitigate the inconsistency issues between pre-training tasks and downstream tasks and to facilitate the resolution of language-related issues, prompt-based approaches have been introduced, which are particularly useful in low-resource scenarios. However, existing approaches mostly rely on verbalizers to translate the predicted vocabulary to task-specific labels. The major limitations of this approach are the ignorance of potentially relevant domain-specific words and being biased by the pre-training data. To address these limitations, we propose a framework that incorporates conceptual knowledge for text classification in the extreme zero-shot setting. The framework includes prompt-based keyword extraction, weight assignment to each prompt keyword, and final representation estimation in the knowledge graph embedding space. We evaluated the method on four widely-used datasets for sentiment analysis and topic detection, demonstrating that it consistently outperforms recently-developed prompt-based approaches in the same experimental settings.


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Joint Multi-Label Attention Networks for Social Text Annotation
Hang Dong | Wei Wang | Kaizhu Huang | Frans Coenen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We propose a novel attention network for document annotation with user-generated tags. The network is designed according to the human reading and annotation behaviour. Usually, users try to digest the title and obtain a rough idea about the topic first, and then read the content of the document. Present research shows that the title metadata could largely affect the social annotation. To better utilise this information, we design a framework that separates the title from the content of a document and apply a title-guided attention mechanism over each sentence in the content. We also propose two semantic-based loss regularisers that enforce the output of the network to conform to label semantics, i.e. similarity and subsumption. We analyse each part of the proposed system with two real-world open datasets on publication and question annotation. The integrated approach, Joint Multi-label Attention Network (JMAN), significantly outperformed the Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU) by around 13%-26% and the Hierarchical Attention Network (HAN) by around 4%-12% on both datasets, with around 10%-30% reduction of training time.