Kalpesh Krishna


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ezCoref: Towards Unifying Annotation Guidelines for Coreference Resolution
Ankita Gupta | Marzena Karpinska | Wenlong Zhao | Kalpesh Krishna | Jack Merullo | Luke Yeh | Mohit Iyyer | Brendan O’Connor
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Large-scale, high-quality corpora are critical for advancing research in coreference resolution. However, existing datasets vary in their definition of coreferences and have been collected via complex and lengthy guidelines that are curated for linguistic experts. These concerns have sparked a growing interest among researchers to curate a unified set of guidelines suitable for annotators with various backgrounds. In this work, we develop a crowdsourcing-friendly coreference annotation methodology, ezCoref, consisting of an annotation tool and an interactive tutorial. We use ezCoref to re-annotate 240 passages from seven existing English coreference datasets (spanning fiction, news, and multiple other domains) while teaching annotators only cases that are treated similarly across these datasets. Surprisingly, we find that reasonable quality annotations were already achievable (90% agreement between the crowd and expert annotations) even without extensive training. On carefully analyzing the remaining disagreements, we identify the presence of linguistic cases that our annotators unanimously agree upon but lack unified treatments (e.g., generic pronouns, appositives) in existing datasets. We propose the research community should revisit these phenomena when curating future unified annotation guidelines.

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LongEval: Guidelines for Human Evaluation of Faithfulness in Long-form Summarization
Kalpesh Krishna | Erin Bransom | Bailey Kuehl | Mohit Iyyer | Pradeep Dasigi | Arman Cohan | Kyle Lo
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

While human evaluation remains best practice for accurately judging the faithfulness of automatically-generated summaries, few solutions exist to address the increased difficulty and workload when evaluating long-form summaries. Through a survey of 162 papers on long-form summarization, we first shed light on current human evaluation practices surrounding long-form summaries. We find that 73% of these papers do not perform any human evaluation on model-generated summaries, while other works face new difficulties that manifest when dealing with long documents (e.g., low inter-annotator agreement). Motivated by our survey, we present LongEval, a set of guidelines for human evaluation of faithfulness in long-form summaries that addresses the following challenges: (1) How can we achieve high inter-annotator agreement on faithfulness scores? (2) How can we minimize annotator workload while maintaining accurate faithfulness scores? and (3) Do humans benefit from automated alignment between summary and source snippets? We deploy LongEval in annotation studies on two long-form summarization datasets in different domains (SQuALITY and PubMed), and we find that switching to a finer granularity of judgment (e.g., clause-level) reduces inter-annotator variance in faithfulness scores (e.g., std-dev from 18.5 to 6.8). We also show that scores from a partial annotation of fine-grained units highly correlates with scores from a full annotation workload (0.89 Kendall’s tau using 50% judgements). We release our human judgments, annotation templates, and software as a Python library for future research.


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Few-shot Controllable Style Transfer for Low-Resource Multilingual Settings
Kalpesh Krishna | Deepak Nathani | Xavier Garcia | Bidisha Samanta | Partha Talukdar
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Style transfer is the task of rewriting a sentence into a target style while approximately preserving content. While most prior literature assumes access to a large style-labelled corpus, recent work (Riley et al. 2021) has attempted “few-shot” style transfer using only 3-10 sentences at inference for style extraction. In this work we study a relevant low-resource setting: style transfer for languages where no style-labelled corpora are available. We notice that existing few-shot methods perform this task poorly, often copying inputs verbatim. We push the state-of-the-art for few-shot style transfer with a new method modeling the stylistic difference between paraphrases. When compared to prior work, our model achieves 2-3x better performance in formality transfer and code-mixing addition across seven languages. Moreover, our method is better at controlling the style transfer magnitude using an input scalar knob. We report promising qualitative results for several attribute transfer tasks (sentiment transfer, simplification, gender neutralization, text anonymization) all without retraining the model. Finally, we find model evaluation to be difficult due to the lack of datasets and metrics for many languages. To facilitate future research we crowdsource formality annotations for 4000 sentence pairs in four Indic languages, and use this data to design our automatic evaluations.

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RELiC: Retrieving Evidence for Literary Claims
Katherine Thai | Yapei Chang | Kalpesh Krishna | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Humanities scholars commonly provide evidence for claims that they make about a work of literature (e.g., a novel) in the form of quotations from the work. We collect a large-scale dataset (RELiC) of 78K literary quotations and surrounding critical analysis and use it to formulate the novel task of literary evidence retrieval, in which models are given an excerpt of literary analysis surrounding a masked quotation and asked to retrieve the quoted passage from the set of all passages in the work. Solving this retrieval task requires a deep understanding of complex literary and linguistic phenomena, which proves challenging to methods that overwhelmingly rely on lexical and semantic similarity matching. We implement a RoBERTa-based dense passage retriever for this task that outperforms existing pretrained information retrieval baselines; however, experiments and analysis by human domain experts indicate that there is substantial room for improvement.

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RankGen: Improving Text Generation with Large Ranking Models
Kalpesh Krishna | Yapei Chang | John Wieting | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Given an input sequence (or prefix), modern language models often assign high probabilities to output sequences that are repetitive, incoherent, or irrelevant to the prefix; as such, model-generated text also contains such artifacts. To address these issues we present RankGen, a 1.2B parameter encoder model for English that scores model generations given a prefix. RankGen can be flexibly incorporated as a scoring function in beam search and used to decode from any pretrained language model. We train RankGen using large-scale contrastive learning to map a prefix close to the ground-truth sequence that follows it and far away from two types of negatives: (1) random sequences from the same document as the prefix, and (2) sequences generated from a large language model conditioned on the prefix. Experiments across four different language models (345M-11B parameters) and two domains show that RankGen significantly outperforms decoding algorithms like nucleus, top-k, and typical sampling on both automatic metrics (85.0 vs 77.3 MAUVE) as well as human evaluations with English writers (74.5% human preference over nucleus sampling). Analysis reveals that RankGen outputs are more relevant to the prefix and improve continuity and coherence compared to baselines. We release our model checkpoints, code, and human preference data with explanations to facilitate future research.

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SLING: Sino Linguistic Evaluation of Large Language Models
Yixiao Song | Kalpesh Krishna | Rajesh Bhatt | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

To understand what kinds of linguistic knowledge are encoded by pretrained Chinese language models (LMs), we introduce the benchmark of Sino LINGuistics (SLING), which consists of 38K minimal sentence pairs in Mandarin Chinese grouped into 9 high-level linguistic phenomena. Each pair demonstrates the acceptability contrast of a specific syntactic or semantic phenomenon (e.g., The keys are lost vs. The keys is lost), and an LM should assign lower perplexity to the acceptable sentence. In contrast to the CLiMP dataset (Xiang et al., 2021), which also contains Chinese minimal pairs and was created by translating the vocabulary of the English BLiMP dataset, the minimal pairs in SLING are derived primarily by applying syntactic and lexical transformations to naturally-occurring, linguist-annotated sentences from the Chinese Treebank 9.0, thus addressing severe issues in CLiMP’s data generation process. We test 18 publicly available pretrained monolingual (e.g., BERT-base-zh, CPM) and multi-lingual (e.g., mT5, XLM) language models on SLING. Our experiments show that the average accuracy for LMs is far below human performance (69.7% vs. 97.1%), while BERT-base-zh achieves the highest accuracy (84.8%) of all tested LMs, even much larger ones. Additionally, we find that most LMs have a strong gender and number (singular/plural) bias, and they perform better on local phenomena than hierarchical ones.

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Exploring Document-Level Literary Machine Translation with Parallel Paragraphs from World Literature
Katherine Thai | Marzena Karpinska | Kalpesh Krishna | Bill Ray | Moira Inghilleri | John Wieting | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Literary translation is a culturally significant task, but it is bottlenecked by the small number of qualified literary translators relative to the many untranslated works published around the world. Machine translation (MT) holds potential to complement the work of human translators by improving both training procedures and their overall efficiency. Literary translation is less constrained than more traditional MT settings since translators must balance meaning equivalence, readability, and critical interpretability in the target language. This property, along with the complex discourse-level context present in literary texts, also makes literary MT more challenging to computationally model and evaluate. To explore this task, we collect a dataset (Par3) of non-English language novels in the public domain, each aligned at the paragraph level to both human and automatic English translations. Using Par3, we discover that expert literary translators prefer reference human translations over machine-translated paragraphs at a rate of 84%, while state-of-the-art automatic MT metrics do not correlate with those preferences. The experts note that MT outputs contain not only mistranslations, but also discourse-disrupting errors and stylistic inconsistencies. To address these problems, we train a post-editing model whose output is preferred over normal MT output at a rate of 69% by experts. We publicly release Par3 to spur future research into literary MT.


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Long Document Summarization in a Low Resource Setting using Pretrained Language Models
Ahsaas Bajaj | Pavitra Dangati | Kalpesh Krishna | Pradhiksha Ashok Kumar | Rheeya Uppaal | Bradford Windsor | Eliot Brenner | Dominic Dotterrer | Rajarshi Das | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Student Research Workshop

Abstractive summarization is the task of compressing a long document into a coherent short document while retaining salient information. Modern abstractive summarization methods are based on deep neural networks which often require large training datasets. Since collecting summarization datasets is an expensive and time-consuming task, practical industrial settings are usually low-resource. In this paper, we study a challenging low-resource setting of summarizing long legal briefs with an average source document length of 4268 words and only 120 available (document, summary) pairs. To account for data scarcity, we used a modern pre-trained abstractive summarizer BART, which only achieves 17.9 ROUGE-L as it struggles with long documents. We thus attempt to compress these long documents by identifying salient sentences in the source which best ground the summary, using a novel algorithm based on GPT-2 language model perplexity scores, that operates within the low resource regime. On feeding the compressed documents to BART, we observe a 6.0 ROUGE-L improvement. Our method also beats several competitive salience detection baselines. Furthermore, the identified salient sentences tend to agree with independent human labeling by domain experts.

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Do Long-Range Language Models Actually Use Long-Range Context?
Simeng Sun | Kalpesh Krishna | Andrew Mattarella-Micke | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Language models are generally trained on short, truncated input sequences, which limits their ability to use discourse-level information present in long-range context to improve their predictions. Recent efforts to improve the efficiency of self-attention have led to a proliferation of long-range Transformer language models, which can process much longer sequences than models of the past. However, the ways in which such models take advantage of the long-range context remain unclear. In this paper, we perform a fine-grained analysis of two long-range Transformer language models (including the Routing Transformer, which achieves state-of-the-art perplexity on the PG-19 long-sequence LM benchmark dataset) that accept input sequences of up to 8K tokens. Our results reveal that providing long-range context (i.e., beyond the previous 2K tokens) to these models only improves their predictions on a small set of tokens (e.g., those that can be copied from the distant context) and does not help at all for sentence-level prediction tasks. Finally, we discover that PG-19 contains a variety of different document types and domains, and that long-range context helps most for literary novels (as opposed to textbooks or magazines).

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Hurdles to Progress in Long-form Question Answering
Kalpesh Krishna | Aurko Roy | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

The task of long-form question answering (LFQA) involves retrieving documents relevant to a given question and using them to generate a paragraph-length answer. While many models have recently been proposed for LFQA, we show in this paper that the task formulation raises fundamental challenges regarding evaluation and dataset creation that currently preclude meaningful modeling progress. To demonstrate these challenges, we first design a new system that relies on sparse attention and contrastive retriever learning to achieve state-of-the-art performance on the ELI5 LFQA dataset. While our system tops the public leaderboard, a detailed analysis reveals several troubling trends: (1) our system’s generated answers are not actually grounded in the documents that it retrieves; (2) ELI5 contains significant train / validation overlap, as at least 81% of ELI5 validation questions occur in paraphrased form in the training set; (3) ROUGE-L is not an informative metric of generated answer quality and can be easily gamed; and (4) human evaluations used for other text generation tasks are unreliable for LFQA. We offer suggestions to mitigate each of these issues, which we hope will lead to more rigorous LFQA research and meaningful progress in the future.


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Reformulating Unsupervised Style Transfer as Paraphrase Generation
Kalpesh Krishna | John Wieting | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Modern NLP defines the task of style transfer as modifying the style of a given sentence without appreciably changing its semantics, which implies that the outputs of style transfer systems should be paraphrases of their inputs. However, many existing systems purportedly designed for style transfer inherently warp the input’s meaning through attribute transfer, which changes semantic properties such as sentiment. In this paper, we reformulate unsupervised style transfer as a paraphrase generation problem, and present a simple methodology based on fine-tuning pretrained language models on automatically generated paraphrase data. Despite its simplicity, our method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art style transfer systems on both human and automatic evaluations. We also survey 23 style transfer papers and discover that existing automatic metrics can be easily gamed and propose fixed variants. Finally, we pivot to a more real-world style transfer setting by collecting a large dataset of 15M sentences in 11 diverse styles, which we use for an in-depth analysis of our system.


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Syntactically Supervised Transformers for Faster Neural Machine Translation
Nader Akoury | Kalpesh Krishna | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Standard decoders for neural machine translation autoregressively generate a single target token per timestep, which slows inference especially for long outputs. While architectural advances such as the Transformer fully parallelize the decoder computations at training time, inference still proceeds sequentially. Recent developments in non- and semi-autoregressive decoding produce multiple tokens per timestep independently of the others, which improves inference speed but deteriorates translation quality. In this work, we propose the syntactically supervised Transformer (SynST), which first autoregressively predicts a chunked parse tree before generating all of the target tokens in one shot conditioned on the predicted parse. A series of controlled experiments demonstrates that SynST decodes sentences ~5x faster than the baseline autoregressive Transformer while achieving higher BLEU scores than most competing methods on En-De and En-Fr datasets.

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Generating Question-Answer Hierarchies
Kalpesh Krishna | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The process of knowledge acquisition can be viewed as a question-answer game between a student and a teacher in which the student typically starts by asking broad, open-ended questions before drilling down into specifics (Hintikka, 1981; Hakkarainen and Sintonen, 2002). This pedagogical perspective motivates a new way of representing documents. In this paper, we present SQUASH (Specificity-controlled Question-Answer Hierarchies), a novel and challenging text generation task that converts an input document into a hierarchy of question-answer pairs. Users can click on high-level questions (e.g., “Why did Frodo leave the Fellowship?”) to reveal related but more specific questions (e.g., “Who did Frodo leave with?”). Using a question taxonomy loosely based on Lehnert (1978), we classify questions in existing reading comprehension datasets as either GENERAL or SPECIFIC . We then use these labels as input to a pipelined system centered around a conditional neural language model. We extensively evaluate the quality of the generated QA hierarchies through crowdsourced experiments and report strong empirical results.


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Revisiting the Importance of Encoding Logic Rules in Sentiment Classification
Kalpesh Krishna | Preethi Jyothi | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We analyze the performance of different sentiment classification models on syntactically complex inputs like A-but-B sentences. The first contribution of this analysis addresses reproducible research: to meaningfully compare different models, their accuracies must be averaged over far more random seeds than what has traditionally been reported. With proper averaging in place, we notice that the distillation model described in Hu et al. (2016), which incorporates explicit logic rules for sentiment classification, is ineffective. In contrast, using contextualized ELMo embeddings (Peters et al., 2018a) instead of logic rules yields significantly better performance. Additionally, we provide analysis and visualizations that demonstrate ELMo’s ability to implicitly learn logic rules. Finally, a crowdsourced analysis reveals how ELMo outperforms baseline models even on sentences with ambiguous sentiment labels.