R&R: Metric-guided Adversarial Sentence Generation
Lei Xu | Alfredo Cuesta-Infante | Laure Berti-Equille | Kalyan Veeramachaneni
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: AACL-IJCNLP 2022
Adversarial examples are helpful for analyzing and improving the robustness of text classifiers. Generating high-quality adversarial examples is a challenging task as it requires generating fluent adversarial sentences that are semantically similar to the original sentences and preserve the original labels, while causing the classifier to misclassify them. Existing methods prioritize misclassification by maximizing each perturbation’s effectiveness at misleading a text classifier; thus, the generated adversarial examples fall short in terms of fluency and similarity. In this paper, we propose a rewrite and rollback (R&R) framework for adversarial attack. It improves the quality of adversarial examples by optimizing a critique score which combines the fluency, similarity, and misclassification metrics. R&R generates high-quality adversarial examples by allowing exploration of perturbations that do not have immediate impact on the misclassification metric but can improve fluency and similarity metrics. We evaluate our method on 5 representative datasets and 3 classifier architectures. Our method outperforms current state-of-the-art in attack success rate by +16.2%, +12.8%, and +14.0% on the classifiers respectively. Code is available at https://github.com/DAI-Lab/fibber
TILM: Neural Language Models with Evolving Topical Influence
Shubhra Kanti Karmaker Santu | Kalyan Veeramachaneni | Chengxiang Zhai
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)
Content of text data are often influenced by contextual factors which often evolve over time (e.g., content of social media are often influenced by topics covered in the major news streams). Existing language models do not consider the influence of such related evolving topics, and thus are not optimal. In this paper, we propose to incorporate such topical-influence into a language model to both improve its accuracy and enable cross-stream analysis of topical influences. Specifically, we propose a novel language model called Topical Influence Language Model (TILM), which is a novel extension of a neural language model to capture the influences on the contents in one text stream by the evolving topics in another related (or possibly same) text stream. Experimental results on six different text stream data comprised of conference paper titles show that the incorporation of evolving topical influence into a language model is beneficial and TILM outperforms multiple baselines in a challenging task of text forecasting. In addition to serving as a language model, TILM further enables interesting analysis of topical influence among multiple text streams.