Kang Min Yoo


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HyperT5: Towards Compute-Efficient Korean Language Modeling
Dongju Park | Soonwon Ka | Kang Min Yoo | Gichang Lee | Jaewook Kang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 5: Industry Track)

Pretraining and fine-tuning language models have become the standard practice in industrial natural language processing (NLP), but developing and deploying general-purpose language models without the abundant computation or data resources is a real-world issue faced by smaller organizations or communities whose main focus is languages with less accessible resources (e.g., non-English). This paper explores the sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) language model architecture as a more practical and compute-efficient alternative to the decoder-oriented approach (e.g., GPT-3), accompanied by novel findings in compute-optimality analyses. We successfully trained billion-scale Korean-language seq2seq language models that strongly outperform other competitive models in Korean benchmarks. Moreover, we demonstrate that such language models can be more efficiently utilized by employing a heavy pre-finetuning strategy, by showcasing a case study on dialog-task adaptation. Our case study shows that adopting language models with more readily available domain-specific unlabeled data greatly improves fine-tuning data efficiency in low-resource settings.

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Probing Out-of-Distribution Robustness of Language Models with Parameter-Efficient Transfer Learning
Hyunsoo Cho | Choonghyun Park | Junyeob Kim | Hyuhng Joon Kim | Kang Min Yoo | Sang-goo Lee
Proceedings of the 12th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2023)

As the size of the pre-trained language model (PLM) continues to increase, numerous parameter-efficient transfer learning methods have been proposed recently to compensate for the high cost of fine-tuning. While large PLMs and various PETL methods have achieved impressive results on various benchmarks, it is uncertain whether they can effectively handle inputs that have been distributionally shifted. In this study, we systematically explore how the ability to detect out-of-distribution (OOD) changes as the size of the PLM grows or the transfer methods are altered. Specifically, we evaluated various PETL techniques, including fine-tuning, Adapter, LoRA, and prefix-tuning, with various language models with different scales.

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Critic-Guided Decoding for Controlled Text Generation
Minbeom Kim | Hwanhee Lee | Kang Min Yoo | Joonsuk Park | Hwaran Lee | Kyomin Jung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Steering language generation towards objectives or away from undesired content has been a long-standing goal in utilizing language models (LM). Recent work has demonstrated reinforcement learning and weighted decoding as effective approaches to achieve a higher level of language control and quality with pros and cons. In this work, we propose a novel critic decoding method for controlled language generation (CriticControl) that combines the strengths of reinforcement learning and weighted decoding. Specifically, we adopt the actor-critic framework and train an LM-steering critic from reward models. Similar to weighted decoding, our method freezes the language model and manipulates the output token distribution using a critic to improve training efficiency and stability. Evaluation of our method on three controlled generation tasks, topic control, sentiment control, and detoxification, shows that our approach generates more coherent and well-controlled texts than previous methods. In addition, CriticControl demonstrates superior generalization ability in zero-shot settings. Human evaluation studies also corroborate our findings.


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Attribute Injection for Pretrained Language Models: A New Benchmark and an Efficient Method
Reinald Kim Amplayo | Kang Min Yoo | Sang-Woo Lee
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Metadata attributes (e.g., user and product IDs from reviews) can be incorporated as additional inputs to neural-based NLP models, by expanding the architecture of the models to improve performance. However, recent models rely on pretrained language models (PLMs), in which previously used techniques for attribute injection are either nontrivial or cost-ineffective. In this paper, we introduce a benchmark for evaluating attribute injection models, which comprises eight datasets across a diverse range of tasks and domains and six synthetically sparsified ones. We also propose a lightweight and memory-efficient method to inject attributes into PLMs. We extend adapters, i.e. tiny plug-in feed-forward modules, to include attributes both independently of or jointly with the text. We use approximation techniques to parameterize the model efficiently for domains with large attribute vocabularies, and training mechanisms to handle multi-labeled and sparse attributes. Extensive experiments and analyses show that our method outperforms previous attribute injection methods and achieves state-of-the-art performance on all datasets.

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Continuous Decomposition of Granularity for Neural Paraphrase Generation
Xiaodong Gu | Zhaowei Zhang | Sang-Woo Lee | Kang Min Yoo | Jung-Woo Ha
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

While Transformers have had significant success in paragraph generation, they treat sentences as linear sequences of tokens and often neglect their hierarchical information. Prior work has shown that decomposing the levels of granularity (e.g., word, phrase, or sentence) for input tokens has produced substantial improvements, suggesting the possibility of enhancing Transformers via more fine-grained modeling of granularity. In this work, we present continuous decomposition of granularity for neural paraphrase generation (C-DNPG): an advanced extension of multi-head self-attention with: 1) a granularity head that automatically infers the hierarchical structure of a sentence by neurally estimating the granularity level of each input token; and 2) two novel attention masks, namely, granularity resonance and granularity scope, to efficiently encode granularity into attention. Experiments on two benchmarks, including Quora question pairs and Twitter URLs have shown that C-DNPG outperforms baseline models by a significant margin. Qualitative analysis reveals that C-DNPG indeed captures fine-grained levels of granularity with effectiveness.

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Generating Information-Seeking Conversations from Unlabeled Documents
Gangwoo Kim | Sungdong Kim | Kang Min Yoo | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Synthesizing datasets for conversational question answering (CQA) from unlabeled documents remains challenging due to its interactive nature. Moreover, while modeling information needs is an essential key, only few studies have discussed it. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework, **SimSeek**, (**Sim**ulating information-**Seek**ing conversation from unlabeled documents), and compare its two variants. In our baseline, **SimSeek-sym**, a questioner generates follow-up questions upon the predetermined answer by an answerer. On the contrary, **SimSeek-asym** first generates the question and then finds its corresponding answer under the conversational context. Our experiments show that they can synthesize effective training resources for CQA and conversational search tasks. As a result, conversations from **SimSeek-asym** not only make more improvements in our experiments but also are favorably reviewed in a human evaluation. We finally release a large-scale resource of synthetic conversations, **Wiki-SimSeek**, containing 2 million CQA pairs built upon Wikipedia documents. With the dataset, our CQA model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on a recent CQA benchmark, QuAC.The code and dataset are available at https://github.com/naver-ai/simseek

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Ground-Truth Labels Matter: A Deeper Look into Input-Label Demonstrations
Kang Min Yoo | Junyeob Kim | Hyuhng Joon Kim | Hyunsoo Cho | Hwiyeol Jo | Sang-Woo Lee | Sang-goo Lee | Taeuk Kim
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite recent explosion of interests in in-context learning, the underlying mechanism and the precise impact of the quality of demonstrations remain elusive. Intuitively, ground-truth labels should have as much impact in in-context learning (ICL) as supervised learning, but recent work reported that the input-label correspondence is significantly less important than previously thought. Intrigued by this counter-intuitive observation, we re-examine the importance of ground-truth labels in in-context learning. With the introduction of two novel metrics, namely Label-Correctness Sensitivity and Ground-truth Label Effect Ratio (GLER), we were able to conduct quantifiable analysis on the impact of ground-truth label demonstrations. Through extensive analyses, we find that the correct input-label mappings can have varying impacts on the downstream in-context learning performances, depending on the experimental configuration. Through additional studies, we identify key components, such as the verbosity of prompt templates and the language model size, as the controlling factor to achieve more noise-resilient ICL.

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Masked Summarization to Generate Factually Inconsistent Summaries for Improved Factual Consistency Checking
Hwanhee Lee | Kang Min Yoo | Joonsuk Park | Hwaran Lee | Kyomin Jung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Despite the recent advances in abstractive summarization systems, it is still difficult to determine whether a generated summary is factual consistent with the source text. To this end, the latest approach is to train a factual consistency classifier on factually consistent and inconsistent summaries. Luckily, the former is readily available as reference summaries in existing summarization datasets. However, generating the latter remains a challenge, as they need to be factually inconsistent, yet closely relevant to the source text to be effective. In this paper, we propose to generate factually inconsistent summaries using source texts and reference summaries with key information masked. Experiments on seven benchmark datasets demonstrate that factual consistency classifiers trained on summaries generated using our method generally outperform existing models and show a competitive correlation with human judgments. We also analyze the characteristics of the summaries generated using our method. We will release the pre-trained model and the code at https://github.com/hwanheelee1993/MFMA.

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Enhancing Out-of-Distribution Detection in Natural Language Understanding via Implicit Layer Ensemble
Hyunsoo Cho | Choonghyun Park | Jaewook Kang | Kang Min Yoo | Taeuk Kim | Sang-goo Lee
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection aims to discern outliers from the intended data distribution, which is crucial to maintaining high reliability and a good user experience. Most recent studies in OOD detection utilize the information from a single representation that resides in the penultimate layer to determine whether the input is anomalous or not. Although such a method is straightforward, the potential of diverse information in the intermediate layers is overlooked. In this paper, we propose a novel framework based on contrastive learning that encourages intermediate features to learn layer-specialized representations and assembles them implicitly into a single representation to absorb rich information in the pre-trained language model. Extensive experiments in various intent classification and OOD datasets demonstrate that our approach is significantly more effective than other works.

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AlphaTuning: Quantization-Aware Parameter-Efficient Adaptation of Large-Scale Pre-Trained Language Models
Se Jung Kwon | Jeonghoon Kim | Jeongin Bae | Kang Min Yoo | Jin-Hwa Kim | Baeseong Park | Byeongwook Kim | Jung-Woo Ha | Nako Sung | Dongsoo Lee
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

There are growing interests in adapting large-scale language models using parameter-efficient fine-tuning methods. However, accelerating the model itself and achieving better inference efficiency through model compression has not been thoroughly explored yet. Model compression could provide the benefits of reducing memory footprints, enabling low-precision computations, and ultimately achieving cost-effective inference. To combine parameter-efficient adaptation and model compression, we propose AlphaTuning consisting of post-training quantization of the pre-trained language model and fine-tuning only some parts of quantized parameters for a target task. Specifically, AlphaTuning works by employing binary-coding quantization, which factorizes the full-precision parameters into binary parameters and a separate set of scaling factors. During the adaptation phase, the binary values are frozen for all tasks, while the scaling factors are fine-tuned for the downstream task. We demonstrate that AlphaTuning, when applied to GPT-2 and OPT, performs competitively with full fine-tuning on a variety of downstream tasks while achieving >10x compression ratio under 4-bit quantization and >1,000x reduction in the number of trainable parameters.


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Self-Guided Contrastive Learning for BERT Sentence Representations
Taeuk Kim | Kang Min Yoo | Sang-goo Lee
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Although BERT and its variants have reshaped the NLP landscape, it still remains unclear how best to derive sentence embeddings from such pre-trained Transformers. In this work, we propose a contrastive learning method that utilizes self-guidance for improving the quality of BERT sentence representations. Our method fine-tunes BERT in a self-supervised fashion, does not rely on data augmentation, and enables the usual [CLS] token embeddings to function as sentence vectors. Moreover, we redesign the contrastive learning objective (NT-Xent) and apply it to sentence representation learning. We demonstrate with extensive experiments that our approach is more effective than competitive baselines on diverse sentence-related tasks. We also show it is efficient at inference and robust to domain shifts.

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What Changes Can Large-scale Language Models Bring? Intensive Study on HyperCLOVA: Billions-scale Korean Generative Pretrained Transformers
Boseop Kim | HyoungSeok Kim | Sang-Woo Lee | Gichang Lee | Donghyun Kwak | Jeon Dong Hyeon | Sunghyun Park | Sungju Kim | Seonhoon Kim | Dongpil Seo | Heungsub Lee | Minyoung Jeong | Sungjae Lee | Minsub Kim | Suk Hyun Ko | Seokhun Kim | Taeyong Park | Jinuk Kim | Soyoung Kang | Na-Hyeon Ryu | Kang Min Yoo | Minsuk Chang | Soobin Suh | Sookyo In | Jinseong Park | Kyungduk Kim | Hiun Kim | Jisu Jeong | Yong Goo Yeo | Donghoon Ham | Dongju Park | Min Young Lee | Jaewook Kang | Inho Kang | Jung-Woo Ha | Woomyoung Park | Nako Sung
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

GPT-3 shows remarkable in-context learning ability of large-scale language models (LMs) trained on hundreds of billion scale data. Here we address some remaining issues less reported by the GPT-3 paper, such as a non-English LM, the performances of different sized models, and the effect of recently introduced prompt optimization on in-context learning. To achieve this, we introduce HyperCLOVA, a Korean variant of 82B GPT-3 trained on a Korean-centric corpus of 560B tokens. Enhanced by our Korean-specific tokenization, HyperCLOVA with our training configuration shows state-of-the-art in-context zero-shot and few-shot learning performances on various downstream tasks in Korean. Also, we show the performance benefits of prompt-based learning and demonstrate how it can be integrated into the prompt engineering pipeline. Then we discuss the possibility of materializing the No Code AI paradigm by providing AI prototyping capabilities to non-experts of ML by introducing HyperCLOVA studio, an interactive prompt engineering interface. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential of our methods with three successful in-house applications.

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GPT3Mix: Leveraging Large-scale Language Models for Text Augmentation
Kang Min Yoo | Dongju Park | Jaewook Kang | Sang-Woo Lee | Woomyoung Park
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Large-scale language models such as GPT-3 are excellent few-shot learners, allowing them to be controlled via natural text prompts. Recent studies report that prompt-based direct classification eliminates the need for fine-tuning but lacks data and inference scalability. This paper proposes a novel data augmentation technique that leverages large-scale language models to generate realistic text samples from a mixture of real samples. We also propose utilizing soft-labels predicted by the language models, effectively distilling knowledge from the large-scale language models and creating textual perturbations simultaneously. We perform data augmentation experiments on diverse classification tasks and show that our method hugely outperforms existing text augmentation methods. We also conduct experiments on our newly proposed benchmark to show that the augmentation effect is not only attributed to memorization. Further ablation studies and a qualitative analysis provide more insights into our approach.


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Variational Hierarchical Dialog Autoencoder for Dialog State Tracking Data Augmentation
Kang Min Yoo | Hanbit Lee | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Walter Chang | Sang-goo Lee
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Recent works have shown that generative data augmentation, where synthetic samples generated from deep generative models complement the training dataset, benefit NLP tasks. In this work, we extend this approach to the task of dialog state tracking for goaloriented dialogs. Due to the inherent hierarchical structure of goal-oriented dialogs over utterances and related annotations, the deep generative model must be capable of capturing the coherence among different hierarchies and types of dialog features. We propose the Variational Hierarchical Dialog Autoencoder (VHDA) for modeling the complete aspects of goal-oriented dialogs, including linguistic features and underlying structured annotations, namely speaker information, dialog acts, and goals. The proposed architecture is designed to model each aspect of goal-oriented dialogs using inter-connected latent variables and learns to generate coherent goal-oriented dialogs from the latent spaces. To overcome training issues that arise from training complex variational models, we propose appropriate training strategies. Experiments on various dialog datasets show that our model improves the downstream dialog trackers’ robustness via generative data augmentation. We also discover additional benefits of our unified approach to modeling goal-oriented dialogs – dialog response generation and user simulation, where our model outperforms previous strong baselines.


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Don’t Just Scratch the Surface: Enhancing Word Representations for Korean with Hanja
Kang Min Yoo | Taeuk Kim | Sang-goo Lee
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We propose a simple yet effective approach for improving Korean word representations using additional linguistic annotation (i.e. Hanja). We employ cross-lingual transfer learning in training word representations by leveraging the fact that Hanja is closely related to Chinese. We evaluate the intrinsic quality of representations learned through our approach using the word analogy and similarity tests. In addition, we demonstrate their effectiveness on several downstream tasks, including a novel Korean news headline generation task.