Contextualized representations (e.g. ELMo, BERT) have become the default pretrained representations for downstream NLP applications. In some settings, this transition has rendered their static embedding predecessors (e.g. Word2Vec, GloVe) obsolete. As a side-effect, we observe that older interpretability methods for static embeddings — while more diverse and mature than those available for their dynamic counterparts — are underutilized in studying newer contextualized representations. Consequently, we introduce simple and fully general methods for converting from contextualized representations to static lookup-table embeddings which we apply to 5 popular pretrained models and 9 sets of pretrained weights. Our analysis of the resulting static embeddings notably reveals that pooling over many contexts significantly improves representational quality under intrinsic evaluation. Complementary to analyzing representational quality, we consider social biases encoded in pretrained representations with respect to gender, race/ethnicity, and religion and find that bias is encoded disparately across pretrained models and internal layers even for models with the same training data. Concerningly, we find dramatic inconsistencies between social bias estimators for word embeddings.
The Common Voice corpus is a massively-multilingual collection of transcribed speech intended for speech technology research and development. Common Voice is designed for Automatic Speech Recognition purposes but can be useful in other domains (e.g. language identification). To achieve scale and sustainability, the Common Voice project employs crowdsourcing for both data collection and data validation. The most recent release includes 29 languages, and as of November 2019 there are a total of 38 languages collecting data. Over 50,000 individuals have participated so far, resulting in 2,500 hours of collected audio. To our knowledge this is the largest audio corpus in the public domain for speech recognition, both in terms of number of hours and number of languages. As an example use case for Common Voice, we present speech recognition experiments using Mozilla’s DeepSpeech Speech-to-Text toolkit. By applying transfer learning from a source English model, we find an average Character Error Rate improvement of 5.99 ± 5.48 for twelve target languages (German, French, Italian, Turkish, Catalan, Slovenian, Welsh, Irish, Breton, Tatar, Chuvash, and Kabyle). For most of these languages, these are the first ever published results on end-to-end Automatic Speech Recognition.