Kelvin Guu


pdf bib
Controllable Semantic Parsing via Retrieval Augmentation
Panupong Pasupat | Yuan Zhang | Kelvin Guu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In practical applications of semantic parsing, we often want to rapidly change the behavior of the parser, such as enabling it to handle queries in a new domain, or changing its predictions on certain targeted queries. While we can introduce new training examples exhibiting the target behavior, a mechanism for enacting such behavior changes without expensive model re-training would be preferable. To this end, we propose ControllAble Semantic Parser via Exemplar Retrieval (CASPER). Given an input query, the parser retrieves related exemplars from a retrieval index, augments them to the query, and then applies a generative seq2seq model to produce an output parse. The exemplars act as a control mechanism over the generic generative model: by manipulating the retrieval index or how the augmented query is constructed, we can manipulate the behavior of the parser. On the MTOP dataset, in addition to achieving state-of-the-art on the standard setup, we show that CASPER can parse queries in a new domain, adapt the prediction toward the specified patterns, or adapt to new semantic schemas without having to further re-train the model.


pdf bib
Pretraining with Contrastive Sentence Objectives Improves Discourse Performance of Language Models
Dan Iter | Kelvin Guu | Larry Lansing | Dan Jurafsky
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recent models for unsupervised representation learning of text have employed a number of techniques to improve contextual word representations but have put little focus on discourse-level representations. We propose Conpono, an inter-sentence objective for pretraining language models that models discourse coherence and the distance between sentences. Given an anchor sentence, our model is trained to predict the text k sentences away using a sampled-softmax objective where the candidates consist of neighboring sentences and sentences randomly sampled from the corpus. On the discourse representation benchmark DiscoEval, our model improves over the previous state-of-the-art by up to 13% and on average 4% absolute across 7 tasks. Our model is the same size as BERT-Base, but outperforms the much larger BERT-Large model and other more recent approaches that incorporate discourse. We also show that Conpono yields gains of 2%-6% absolute even for tasks that do not explicitly evaluate discourse: textual entailment (RTE), common sense reasoning (COPA) and reading comprehension (ReCoRD).


pdf bib
Generating Sentences by Editing Prototypes
Kelvin Guu | Tatsunori B. Hashimoto | Yonatan Oren | Percy Liang
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 6

We propose a new generative language model for sentences that first samples a prototype sentence from the training corpus and then edits it into a new sentence. Compared to traditional language models that generate from scratch either left-to-right or by first sampling a latent sentence vector, our prototype-then-edit model improves perplexity on language modeling and generates higher quality outputs according to human evaluation. Furthermore, the model gives rise to a latent edit vector that captures interpretable semantics such as sentence similarity and sentence-level analogies.

pdf bib
Mapping natural language commands to web elements
Panupong Pasupat | Tian-Shun Jiang | Evan Liu | Kelvin Guu | Percy Liang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The web provides a rich, open-domain environment with textual, structural, and spatial properties. We propose a new task for grounding language in this environment: given a natural language command (e.g., “click on the second article”), choose the correct element on the web page (e.g., a hyperlink or text box). We collected a dataset of over 50,000 commands that capture various phenomena such as functional references (e.g. “find who made this site”), relational reasoning (e.g. “article by john”), and visual reasoning (e.g. “top-most article”). We also implemented and analyzed three baseline models that capture different phenomena present in the dataset.


pdf bib
From Language to Programs: Bridging Reinforcement Learning and Maximum Marginal Likelihood
Kelvin Guu | Panupong Pasupat | Evan Liu | Percy Liang
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Our goal is to learn a semantic parser that maps natural language utterances into executable programs when only indirect supervision is available: examples are labeled with the correct execution result, but not the program itself. Consequently, we must search the space of programs for those that output the correct result, while not being misled by spurious programs: incorrect programs that coincidentally output the correct result. We connect two common learning paradigms, reinforcement learning (RL) and maximum marginal likelihood (MML), and then present a new learning algorithm that combines the strengths of both. The new algorithm guards against spurious programs by combining the systematic search traditionally employed in MML with the randomized exploration of RL, and by updating parameters such that probability is spread more evenly across consistent programs. We apply our learning algorithm to a new neural semantic parser and show significant gains over existing state-of-the-art results on a recent context-dependent semantic parsing task.


pdf bib
Traversing Knowledge Graphs in Vector Space
Kelvin Guu | John Miller | Percy Liang
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing