Kenneth Heafield


2021

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Gender bias amplification during Speed-Quality optimization in Neural Machine Translation
Adithya Renduchintala | Denise Diaz | Kenneth Heafield | Xian Li | Mona Diab
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Is bias amplified when neural machine translation (NMT) models are optimized for speed and evaluated on generic test sets using BLEU? We investigate architectures and techniques commonly used to speed up decoding in Transformer-based models, such as greedy search, quantization, average attention networks (AANs) and shallow decoder models and show their effect on gendered noun translation. We construct a new gender bias test set, SimpleGEN, based on gendered noun phrases in which there is a single, unambiguous, correct answer. While we find minimal overall BLEU degradation as we apply speed optimizations, we observe that gendered noun translation performance degrades at a much faster rate.

2020

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Parallel Sentence Mining by Constrained Decoding
Pinzhen Chen | Nikolay Bogoychev | Kenneth Heafield | Faheem Kirefu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present a novel method to extract parallel sentences from two monolingual corpora, using neural machine translation. Our method relies on translating sentences in one corpus, but constraining the decoding by a prefix tree built on the other corpus. We argue that a neural machine translation system by itself can be a sentence similarity scorer and it efficiently approximates pairwise comparison with a modified beam search. When benchmarked on the BUCC shared task, our method achieves results comparable to other submissions.

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ParaCrawl: Web-Scale Acquisition of Parallel Corpora
Marta Bañón | Pinzhen Chen | Barry Haddow | Kenneth Heafield | Hieu Hoang | Miquel Esplà-Gomis | Mikel L. Forcada | Amir Kamran | Faheem Kirefu | Philipp Koehn | Sergio Ortiz Rojas | Leopoldo Pla Sempere | Gema Ramírez-Sánchez | Elsa Sarrías | Marek Strelec | Brian Thompson | William Waites | Dion Wiggins | Jaume Zaragoza
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We report on methods to create the largest publicly available parallel corpora by crawling the web, using open source software. We empirically compare alternative methods and publish benchmark data sets for sentence alignment and sentence pair filtering. We also describe the parallel corpora released and evaluate their quality and their usefulness to create machine translation systems.

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In Neural Machine Translation, What Does Transfer Learning Transfer?
Alham Fikri Aji | Nikolay Bogoychev | Kenneth Heafield | Rico Sennrich
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Transfer learning improves quality for low-resource machine translation, but it is unclear what exactly it transfers. We perform several ablation studies that limit information transfer, then measure the quality impact across three language pairs to gain a black-box understanding of transfer learning. Word embeddings play an important role in transfer learning, particularly if they are properly aligned. Although transfer learning can be performed without embeddings, results are sub-optimal. In contrast, transferring only the embeddings but nothing else yields catastrophic results. We then investigate diagonal alignments with auto-encoders over real languages and randomly generated sequences, finding even randomly generated sequences as parents yield noticeable but smaller gains. Finally, transfer learning can eliminate the need for a warm-up phase when training transformer models in high resource language pairs.

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Speed-optimized, Compact Student Models that Distill Knowledge from a Larger Teacher Model: the UEDIN-CUNI Submission to the WMT 2020 News Translation Task
Ulrich Germann | Roman Grundkiewicz | Martin Popel | Radina Dobreva | Nikolay Bogoychev | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

We describe the joint submission of the University of Edinburgh and Charles University, Prague, to the Czech/English track in the WMT 2020 Shared Task on News Translation. Our fast and compact student models distill knowledge from a larger, slower teacher. They are designed to offer a good trade-off between translation quality and inference efficiency. On the WMT 2020 Czech ↔ English test sets, they achieve translation speeds of over 700 whitespace-delimited source words per second on a single CPU thread, thus making neural translation feasible on consumer hardware without a GPU.

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Losing Heads in the Lottery: Pruning Transformer Attention in Neural Machine Translation
Maximiliana Behnke | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The attention mechanism is the crucial component of the transformer architecture. Recent research shows that most attention heads are not confident in their decisions and can be pruned. However, removing them before training a model results in lower quality. In this paper, we apply the lottery ticket hypothesis to prune heads in the early stages of training. Our experiments on machine translation show that it is possible to remove up to three-quarters of attention heads from transformer-big during early training with an average -0.1 change in BLEU for Turkish→English. The pruned model is 1.5 times as fast at inference, albeit at the cost of longer training. Our method is complementary to other approaches, such as teacher-student, with English→German student model gaining an additional 10% speed-up with 75% encoder attention removed and 0.2 BLEU loss.

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The Sockeye 2 Neural Machine Translation Toolkit at AMTA 2020
Tobias Domhan | Michael Denkowski | David Vilar | Xing Niu | Felix Hieber | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 1: Research Track)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation
Alexandra Birch | Andrew Finch | Hiroaki Hayashi | Kenneth Heafield | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Ioannis Konstas | Xian Li | Graham Neubig | Yusuke Oda
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

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Findings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation
Kenneth Heafield | Hiroaki Hayashi | Yusuke Oda | Ioannis Konstas | Andrew Finch | Graham Neubig | Xian Li | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

We describe the finding of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation, held in concert with the annual conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2020). First, we summarize the research trends of papers presented in the proceedings. Second, we describe the results of the three shared tasks 1) efficient neural machine translation (NMT) where participants were tasked with creating NMT systems that are both accurate and efficient, and 2) document-level generation and translation (DGT) where participants were tasked with developing systems that generate summaries from structured data, potentially with assistance from text in another language and 3) STAPLE task: creation of as many possible translations of a given input text. This last shared task was organised by Duolingo.

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Compressing Neural Machine Translation Models with 4-bit Precision
Alham Fikri Aji | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) is resource-intensive. We design a quantization procedure to compress fit NMT models better for devices with limited hardware capability. We use logarithmic quantization, instead of the more commonly used fixed-point quantization, based on the empirical fact that parameters distribution is not uniform. We find that biases do not take a lot of memory and show that biases can be left uncompressed to improve the overall quality without affecting the compression rate. We also propose to use an error-feedback mechanism during retraining, to preserve the compressed model as a stale gradient. We empirically show that NMT models based on Transformer or RNN architecture can be compressed up to 4-bit precision without any noticeable quality degradation. Models can be compressed up to binary precision, albeit with lower quality. RNN architecture seems to be more robust towards compression, compared to the Transformer.

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Edinburgh’s Submissions to the 2020 Machine Translation Efficiency Task
Nikolay Bogoychev | Roman Grundkiewicz | Alham Fikri Aji | Maximiliana Behnke | Kenneth Heafield | Sidharth Kashyap | Emmanouil-Ioannis Farsarakis | Mateusz Chudyk
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

We participated in all tracks of the Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation 2020 Efficiency Shared Task: single-core CPU, multi-core CPU, and GPU. At the model level, we use teacher-student training with a variety of student sizes, tie embeddings and sometimes layers, use the Simpler Simple Recurrent Unit, and introduce head pruning. On GPUs, we used 16-bit floating-point tensor cores. On CPUs, we customized 8-bit quantization and multiple processes with affinity for the multi-core setting. To reduce model size, we experimented with 4-bit log quantization but use floats at runtime. In the shared task, most of our submissions were Pareto optimal with respect the trade-off between time and quality.

2019

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Combining Global Sparse Gradients with Local Gradients in Distributed Neural Network Training
Alham Fikri Aji | Kenneth Heafield | Nikolay Bogoychev
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

One way to reduce network traffic in multi-node data-parallel stochastic gradient descent is to only exchange the largest gradients. However, doing so damages the gradient and degrades the model’s performance. Transformer models degrade dramatically while the impact on RNNs is smaller. We restore gradient quality by combining the compressed global gradient with the node’s locally computed uncompressed gradient. Neural machine translation experiments show that Transformer convergence is restored while RNNs converge faster. With our method, training on 4 nodes converges up to 1.5x as fast as with uncompressed gradients and scales 3.5x relative to single-node training.

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Making Asynchronous Stochastic Gradient Descent Work for Transformers
Alham Fikri Aji | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

Asynchronous stochastic gradient descent (SGD) converges poorly for Transformer models, so synchronous SGD has become the norm for Transformer training. This is unfortunate because asynchronous SGD is faster at raw training speed since it avoids waiting for synchronization. Moreover, the Transformer model is the basis for state-of-the-art models for several tasks, including machine translation, so training speed matters. To understand why asynchronous SGD under-performs, we blur the lines between asynchronous and synchronous methods. We find that summing several asynchronous updates, rather than applying them immediately, restores convergence behavior. With this method, the Transformer attains the same BLEU score 1.36 times as fast.

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Zero-Resource Neural Machine Translation with Monolingual Pivot Data
Anna Currey | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

Zero-shot neural machine translation (NMT) is a framework that uses source-pivot and target-pivot parallel data to train a source-target NMT system. An extension to zero-shot NMT is zero-resource NMT, which generates pseudo-parallel corpora using a zero-shot system and further trains the zero-shot system on that data. In this paper, we expand on zero-resource NMT by incorporating monolingual data in the pivot language into training; since the pivot language is usually the highest-resource language of the three, we expect monolingual pivot-language data to be most abundant. We propose methods for generating pseudo-parallel corpora using pivot-language monolingual data and for leveraging the pseudo-parallel corpora to improve the zero-shot NMT system. We evaluate these methods for a high-resource language pair (German-Russian) using English as the pivot. We show that our proposed methods yield consistent improvements over strong zero-shot and zero-resource baselines and even catch up to pivot-based models in BLEU (while not requiring the two-pass inference that pivot models require).

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From Research to Production and Back: Ludicrously Fast Neural Machine Translation
Young Jin Kim | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Hany Hassan | Alham Fikri Aji | Kenneth Heafield | Roman Grundkiewicz | Nikolay Bogoychev
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

This paper describes the submissions of the “Marian” team to the WNGT 2019 efficiency shared task. Taking our dominating submissions to the previous edition of the shared task as a starting point, we develop improved teacher-student training via multi-agent dual-learning and noisy backward-forward translation for Transformer-based student models. For efficient CPU-based decoding, we propose pre-packed 8-bit matrix products, improved batched decoding, cache-friendly student architectures with parameter sharing and light-weight RNN-based decoder architectures. GPU-based decoding benefits from the same architecture changes, from pervasive 16-bit inference and concurrent streams. These modifications together with profiler-based C++ code optimization allow us to push the Pareto frontier established during the 2018 edition towards 24x (CPU) and 14x (GPU) faster models at comparable or higher BLEU values. Our fastest CPU model is more than 4x faster than last year’s fastest submission at more than 3 points higher BLEU. Our fastest GPU model at 1.5 seconds translation time is slightly faster than last year’s fastest RNN-based submissions, but outperforms them by more than 4 BLEU and 10 BLEU points respectively.

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Neural Grammatical Error Correction Systems with Unsupervised Pre-training on Synthetic Data
Roman Grundkiewicz | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

Considerable effort has been made to address the data sparsity problem in neural grammatical error correction. In this work, we propose a simple and surprisingly effective unsupervised synthetic error generation method based on confusion sets extracted from a spellchecker to increase the amount of training data. Synthetic data is used to pre-train a Transformer sequence-to-sequence model, which not only improves over a strong baseline trained on authentic error-annotated data, but also enables the development of a practical GEC system in a scenario where little genuine error-annotated data is available. The developed systems placed first in the BEA19 shared task, achieving 69.47 and 64.24 F0.5 in the restricted and low-resource tracks respectively, both on the W&I+LOCNESS test set. On the popular CoNLL 2014 test set, we report state-of-the-art results of 64.16 M² for the submitted system, and 61.30 M² for the constrained system trained on the NUCLE and Lang-8 data.

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Incorporating Source Syntax into Transformer-Based Neural Machine Translation
Anna Currey | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)

Transformer-based neural machine translation (NMT) has recently achieved state-of-the-art performance on many machine translation tasks. However, recent work (Raganato and Tiedemann, 2018; Tang et al., 2018; Tran et al., 2018) has indicated that Transformer models may not learn syntactic structures as well as their recurrent neural network-based counterparts, particularly in low-resource cases. In this paper, we incorporate constituency parse information into a Transformer NMT model. We leverage linearized parses of the source training sentences in order to inject syntax into the Transformer architecture without modifying it. We introduce two methods: a multi-task machine translation and parsing model with a single encoder and decoder, and a mixed encoder model that learns to translate directly from parsed and unparsed source sentences. We evaluate our methods on low-resource translation from English into twenty target languages, showing consistent improvements of 1.3 BLEU on average across diverse target languages for the multi-task technique. We further evaluate the models on full-scale WMT tasks, finding that the multi-task model aids low- and medium-resource NMT but degenerates high-resource English-German translation.

2018

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Approaching Neural Grammatical Error Correction as a Low-Resource Machine Translation Task
Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Roman Grundkiewicz | Shubha Guha | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Previously, neural methods in grammatical error correction (GEC) did not reach state-of-the-art results compared to phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) baselines. We demonstrate parallels between neural GEC and low-resource neural MT and successfully adapt several methods from low-resource MT to neural GEC. We further establish guidelines for trustable results in neural GEC and propose a set of model-independent methods for neural GEC that can be easily applied in most GEC settings. Proposed methods include adding source-side noise, domain-adaptation techniques, a GEC-specific training-objective, transfer learning with monolingual data, and ensembling of independently trained GEC models and language models. The combined effects of these methods result in better than state-of-the-art neural GEC models that outperform previously best neural GEC systems by more than 10% M² on the CoNLL-2014 benchmark and 5.9% on the JFLEG test set. Non-neural state-of-the-art systems are outperformed by more than 2% on the CoNLL-2014 benchmark and by 4% on JFLEG.

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Marian: Fast Neural Machine Translation in C++
Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Roman Grundkiewicz | Tomasz Dwojak | Hieu Hoang | Kenneth Heafield | Tom Neckermann | Frank Seide | Ulrich Germann | Alham Fikri Aji | Nikolay Bogoychev | André F. T. Martins | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of ACL 2018, System Demonstrations

We present Marian, an efficient and self-contained Neural Machine Translation framework with an integrated automatic differentiation engine based on dynamic computation graphs. Marian is written entirely in C++. We describe the design of the encoder-decoder framework and demonstrate that a research-friendly toolkit can achieve high training and translation speed.

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Neural Machine Translation Techniques for Named Entity Transliteration
Roman Grundkiewicz | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Seventh Named Entities Workshop

Transliterating named entities from one language into another can be approached as neural machine translation (NMT) problem, for which we use deep attentional RNN encoder-decoder models. To build a strong transliteration system, we apply well-established techniques from NMT, such as dropout regularization, model ensembling, rescoring with right-to-left models, and back-translation. Our submission to the NEWS 2018 Shared Task on Named Entity Transliteration ranked first in several tracks.

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Fast Neural Machine Translation Implementation
Hieu Hoang | Tomasz Dwojak | Rihards Krislauks | Daniel Torregrosa | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Neural Machine Translation and Generation

This paper describes the submissions to the efficiency track for GPUs at the Workshop for Neural Machine Translation and Generation by members of the University of Edinburgh, Adam Mickiewicz University, Tilde and University of Alicante. We focus on efficient implementation of the recurrent deep-learning model as implemented in Amun, the fast inference engine for neural machine translation. We improve the performance with an efficient mini-batching algorithm, and by fusing the softmax operation with the k-best extraction algorithm. Submissions using Amun were first, second and third fastest in the GPU efficiency track.

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Marian: Cost-effective High-Quality Neural Machine Translation in C++
Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Kenneth Heafield | Hieu Hoang | Roman Grundkiewicz | Anthony Aue
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Neural Machine Translation and Generation

This paper describes the submissions of the “Marian” team to the WNMT 2018 shared task. We investigate combinations of teacher-student training, low-precision matrix products, auto-tuning and other methods to optimize the Transformer model on GPU and CPU. By further integrating these methods with the new averaging attention networks, a recently introduced faster Transformer variant, we create a number of high-quality, high-performance models on the GPU and CPU, dominating the Pareto frontier for this shared task.

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Unsupervised Source Hierarchies for Low-Resource Neural Machine Translation
Anna Currey | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Workshop on the Relevance of Linguistic Structure in Neural Architectures for NLP

Incorporating source syntactic information into neural machine translation (NMT) has recently proven successful (Eriguchi et al., 2016; Luong et al., 2016). However, this is generally done using an outside parser to syntactically annotate the training data, making this technique difficult to use for languages or domains for which a reliable parser is not available. In this paper, we introduce an unsupervised tree-to-sequence (tree2seq) model for neural machine translation; this model is able to induce an unsupervised hierarchical structure on the source sentence based on the downstream task of neural machine translation. We adapt the Gumbel tree-LSTM of Choi et al. (2018) to NMT in order to create the encoder. We evaluate our model against sequential and supervised parsing baselines on three low- and medium-resource language pairs. For low-resource cases, the unsupervised tree2seq encoder significantly outperforms the baselines; no improvements are seen for medium-resource translation.

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The University of Edinburgh’s Submissions to the WMT18 News Translation Task
Barry Haddow | Nikolay Bogoychev | Denis Emelin | Ulrich Germann | Roman Grundkiewicz | Kenneth Heafield | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Rico Sennrich
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

The University of Edinburgh made submissions to all 14 language pairs in the news translation task, with strong performances in most pairs. We introduce new RNN-variant, mixed RNN/Transformer ensembles, data selection and weighting, and extensions to back-translation.

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Findings of the WMT 2018 Shared Task on Parallel Corpus Filtering
Philipp Koehn | Huda Khayrallah | Kenneth Heafield | Mikel L. Forcada
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

We posed the shared task of assigning sentence-level quality scores for a very noisy corpus of sentence pairs crawled from the web, with the goal of sub-selecting 1% and 10% of high-quality data to be used to train machine translation systems. Seventeen participants from companies, national research labs, and universities participated in this task.

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Multi-Source Syntactic Neural Machine Translation
Anna Currey | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We introduce a novel multi-source technique for incorporating source syntax into neural machine translation using linearized parses. This is achieved by employing separate encoders for the sequential and parsed versions of the same source sentence; the resulting representations are then combined using a hierarchical attention mechanism. The proposed model improves over both seq2seq and parsed baselines by over 1 BLEU on the WMT17 English-German task. Further analysis shows that our multi-source syntactic model is able to translate successfully without any parsed input, unlike standard parsed methods. In addition, performance does not deteriorate as much on long sentences as for the baselines.

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Accelerating Asynchronous Stochastic Gradient Descent for Neural Machine Translation
Nikolay Bogoychev | Kenneth Heafield | Alham Fikri Aji | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In order to extract the best possible performance from asynchronous stochastic gradient descent one must increase the mini-batch size and scale the learning rate accordingly. In order to achieve further speedup we introduce a technique that delays gradient updates effectively increasing the mini-batch size. Unfortunately with the increase of mini-batch size we worsen the stale gradient problem in asynchronous stochastic gradient descent (SGD) which makes the model convergence poor. We introduce local optimizers which mitigate the stale gradient problem and together with fine tuning our momentum we are able to train a shallow machine translation system 27% faster than an optimized baseline with negligible penalty in BLEU.

2017

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Copied Monolingual Data Improves Low-Resource Neural Machine Translation
Anna Currey | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

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The University of Edinburgh’s Neural MT Systems for WMT17
Rico Sennrich | Alexandra Birch | Anna Currey | Ulrich Germann | Barry Haddow | Kenneth Heafield | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Philip Williams
Proceedings of the Second Conference on Machine Translation

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Sparse Communication for Distributed Gradient Descent
Alham Fikri Aji | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We make distributed stochastic gradient descent faster by exchanging sparse updates instead of dense updates. Gradient updates are positively skewed as most updates are near zero, so we map the 99% smallest updates (by absolute value) to zero then exchange sparse matrices. This method can be combined with quantization to further improve the compression. We explore different configurations and apply them to neural machine translation and MNIST image classification tasks. Most configurations work on MNIST, whereas different configurations reduce convergence rate on the more complex translation task. Our experiments show that we can achieve up to 49% speed up on MNIST and 22% on NMT without damaging the final accuracy or BLEU.

2016

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Normalized Log-Linear Interpolation of Backoff Language Models is Efficient
Kenneth Heafield | Chase Geigle | Sean Massung | Lane Schwartz
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2015

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Language Identification and Modeling in Specialized Hardware
Kenneth Heafield | Rohan Kshirsagar | Santiago Barona
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2014

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Edinburgh’s Phrase-based Machine Translation Systems for WMT-14
Nadir Durrani | Barry Haddow | Philipp Koehn | Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Stanford University’s Submissions to the WMT 2014 Translation Task
Julia Neidert | Sebastian Schuster | Spence Green | Kenneth Heafield | Christopher Manning
Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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N-gram Counts and Language Models from the Common Crawl
Christian Buck | Kenneth Heafield | Bas van Ooyen
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

We contribute 5-gram counts and language models trained on the Common Crawl corpus, a collection over 9 billion web pages. This release improves upon the Google n-gram counts in two key ways: the inclusion of low-count entries and deduplication to reduce boilerplate. By preserving singletons, we were able to use Kneser-Ney smoothing to build large language models. This paper describes how the corpus was processed with emphasis on the problems that arise in working with data at this scale. Our unpruned Kneser-Ney English $5$-gram language model, built on 975 billion deduplicated tokens, contains over 500 billion unique n-grams. We show gains of 0.5-1.4 BLEU by using large language models to translate into various languages.

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Faster Phrase-Based Decoding by Refining Feature State
Kenneth Heafield | Michael Kayser | Christopher D. Manning
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2013

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Grouping Language Model Boundary Words to Speed K–Best Extraction from Hypergraphs
Kenneth Heafield | Philipp Koehn | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Edinburgh’s Machine Translation Systems for European Language Pairs
Nadir Durrani | Barry Haddow | Kenneth Heafield | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Scalable Modified Kneser-Ney Language Model Estimation
Kenneth Heafield | Ivan Pouzyrevsky | Jonathan H. Clark | Philipp Koehn
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

2012

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Language Model Rest Costs and Space-Efficient Storage
Kenneth Heafield | Philipp Koehn | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning

2011

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CMU System Combination in WMT 2011
Kenneth Heafield | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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KenLM: Faster and Smaller Language Model Queries
Kenneth Heafield
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation

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Left language model state for syntactic machine translation
Kenneth Heafield | Hieu Hoang | Philipp Koehn | Tetsuo Kiso | Marcello Federico
Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign

Many syntactic machine translation decoders, including Moses, cdec, and Joshua, implement bottom-up dynamic programming to integrate N-gram language model probabilities into hypothesis scoring. These decoders concatenate hypotheses according to grammar rules, yielding larger hypotheses and eventually complete translations. When hypotheses are concatenated, the language model score is adjusted to account for boundary-crossing n-grams. Words on the boundary of each hypothesis are encoded in state, consisting of left state (the first few words) and right state (the last few words). We speed concatenation by encoding left state using data structure pointers in lieu of vocabulary indices and by avoiding unnecessary queries. To increase the decoder’s opportunities to recombine hypothesis, we minimize the number of words encoded by left state. This has the effect of reducing search errors made by the decoder. The resulting gain in model score is smaller than for right state minimization, which we explain by observing a relationship between state minimization and language model probability. With a fixed cube pruning pop limit, we show a 3-6% reduction in CPU time and improved model scores. Reducing the pop limit to the point where model scores tie the baseline yields a net 11% reduction in CPU time.

2010

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CMU Multi-Engine Machine Translation for WMT 2010
Kenneth Heafield | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation and MetricsMATR

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Voting on N-grams for Machine Translation System Combination
Kenneth Heafield | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas: Research Papers

System combination exploits differences between machine translation systems to form a combined translation from several system outputs. Core to this process are features that reward n-gram matches between a candidate combination and each system output. Systems differ in performance at the n-gram level despite similar overall scores. We therefore advocate a new feature formulation: for each system and each small n, a feature counts n-gram matches between the system and candidate. We show post-evaluation improvement of 6.67 BLEU over the best system on NIST MT09 Arabic-English test data. Compared to a baseline system combination scheme from WMT 2009, we show improvement in the range of 1 BLEU point.

2009

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Machine Translation System Combination with Flexible Word Ordering
Kenneth Heafield | Greg Hanneman | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation