Redundancy-aware extractive summarization systems score the redundancy of the sentences to be included in a summary either jointly with their salience information or separately as an additional sentence scoring step. Previous work shows the efficacy of jointly scoring and selecting sentences with neural sequence generation models. It is, however, not well-understood if the gain is due to better encoding techniques or better redundancy reduction approaches. Similarly, the contribution of salience versus diversity components on the created summary is not studied well. Building on the state-of-the-art encoding methods for summarization, we present two adaptive learning models: AREDSUM-SEQ that jointly considers salience and novelty during sentence selection; and a two-step AREDSUM-CTX that scores salience first, then learns to balance salience and redundancy, enabling the measurement of the impact of each aspect. Empirical results on CNN/DailyMail and NYT50 datasets show that by modeling diversity explicitly in a separate step, AREDSUM-CTX achieves significantly better performance than AREDSUM-SEQ as well as state-of-the-art extractive summarization baselines.
We describe Artemis (Annotation methodology for Rich, Tractable, Extractive, Multi-domain, Indicative Summarization), a novel hierarchical annotation process that produces indicative summaries for documents from multiple domains. Current summarization evaluation datasets are single-domain and focused on a few domains for which naturally occurring summaries can be easily found, such as news and scientific articles. These are not sufficient for training and evaluation of summarization models for use in document management and information retrieval systems, which need to deal with documents from multiple domains. Compared to other annotation methods such as Relative Utility and Pyramid, Artemis is more tractable because judges don’t need to look at all the sentences in a document when making an importance judgment for one of the sentences, while providing similarly rich sentence importance annotations. We describe the annotation process in detail and compare it with other similar evaluation systems. We also present analysis and experimental results over a sample set of 532 annotated documents.