Kevin Huang


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Entity and Evidence Guided Document-Level Relation Extraction
Kevin Huang | Peng Qi | Guangtao Wang | Tengyu Ma | Jing Huang
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2021)

Document-level relation extraction is a challenging task, requiring reasoning over multiple sentences to predict a set of relations in a document. In this paper, we propose a novel framework E2GRE (Entity and Evidence Guided Relation Extraction) that jointly extracts relations and the underlying evidence sentences by using large pretrained language model (LM) as input encoder. First, we propose to guide the pretrained LM’s attention mechanism to focus on relevant context by using attention probabilities as additional features for evidence prediction. Furthermore, instead of feeding the whole document into pretrained LMs to obtain entity representation, we concatenate document text with head entities to help LMs concentrate on parts of the document that are more related to the head entity. Our E2GRE jointly learns relation extraction and evidence prediction effectively, showing large gains on both these tasks, which we find are highly correlated.

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MS-Mentions: Consistently Annotating Entity Mentions in Materials Science Procedural Text
Tim O’Gorman | Zach Jensen | Sheshera Mysore | Kevin Huang | Rubayyat Mahbub | Elsa Olivetti | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Material science synthesis procedures are a promising domain for scientific NLP, as proper modeling of these recipes could provide insight into new ways of creating materials. However, a fundamental challenge in building information extraction models for material science synthesis procedures is getting accurate labels for the materials, operations, and other entities of those procedures. We present a new corpus of entity mention annotations over 595 Material Science synthesis procedural texts (157,488 tokens), which greatly expands the training data available for the Named Entity Recognition task. We outline a new label inventory designed to provide consistent annotations and a new annotation approach intended to maximize the consistency and annotation speed of domain experts. Inter-annotator agreement studies and baseline models trained upon the data suggest that the corpus provides high-quality annotations of these mention types. This corpus helps lay a foundation for future high-quality modeling of synthesis procedures.

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Variance-reduced First-order Meta-learning for Natural Language Processing Tasks
Lingxiao Wang | Kevin Huang | Tengyu Ma | Quanquan Gu | Jing Huang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

First-order meta-learning algorithms have been widely used in practice to learn initial model parameters that can be quickly adapted to new tasks due to their efficiency and effectiveness. However, existing studies find that meta-learner can overfit to some specific adaptation when we have heterogeneous tasks, leading to significantly degraded performance. In Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, datasets are often diverse and each task has its unique characteristics. Therefore, to address the overfitting issue when applying first-order meta-learning to NLP applications, we propose to reduce the variance of the gradient estimator used in task adaptation. To this end, we develop a variance-reduced first-order meta-learning algorithm. The core of our algorithm is to introduce a novel variance reduction term to the gradient estimation when performing the task adaptation. Experiments on two NLP applications: few-shot text classification and multi-domain dialog state tracking demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method.


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The Materials Science Procedural Text Corpus: Annotating Materials Synthesis Procedures with Shallow Semantic Structures
Sheshera Mysore | Zachary Jensen | Edward Kim | Kevin Huang | Haw-Shiuan Chang | Emma Strubell | Jeffrey Flanigan | Andrew McCallum | Elsa Olivetti
Proceedings of the 13th Linguistic Annotation Workshop

Materials science literature contains millions of materials synthesis procedures described in unstructured natural language text. Large-scale analysis of these synthesis procedures would facilitate deeper scientific understanding of materials synthesis and enable automated synthesis planning. Such analysis requires extracting structured representations of synthesis procedures from the raw text as a first step. To facilitate the training and evaluation of synthesis extraction models, we introduce a dataset of 230 synthesis procedures annotated by domain experts with labeled graphs that express the semantics of the synthesis sentences. The nodes in this graph are synthesis operations and their typed arguments, and labeled edges specify relations between the nodes. We describe this new resource in detail and highlight some specific challenges to annotating scientific text with shallow semantic structure. We make the corpus available to the community to promote further research and development of scientific information extraction systems.

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Relation Module for Non-Answerable Predictions on Reading Comprehension
Kevin Huang | Yun Tang | Jing Huang | Xiaodong He | Bowen Zhou
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Machine reading comprehension (MRC) has attracted significant amounts of research attention recently, due to an increase of challenging reading comprehension datasets. In this paper, we aim to improve a MRC model’s ability to determine whether a question has an answer in a given context (e.g. the recently proposed SQuAD 2.0 task). The relation module consists of both semantic extraction and relational information. We first extract high level semantics as objects from both question and context with multi-head self-attentive pooling. These semantic objects are then passed to a relation network, which generates relationship scores for each object pair in a sentence. These scores are used to determine whether a question is non-answerable. We test the relation module on the SQuAD 2.0 dataset using both the BiDAF and BERT models as baseline readers. We obtain 1.8% gain of F1 accuracy on top of the BiDAF reader, and 1.0% on top of the BERT base model. These results show the effectiveness of our relation module on MRC.