Kevin Stowe


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IMPLI: Investigating NLI Models’ Performance on Figurative Language
Kevin Stowe | Prasetya Utama | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Natural language inference (NLI) has been widely used as a task to train and evaluate models for language understanding. However, the ability of NLI models to perform inferences requiring understanding of figurative language such as idioms and metaphors remains understudied. We introduce the IMPLI (Idiomatic and Metaphoric Paired Language Inference) dataset, an English dataset consisting of paired sentences spanning idioms and metaphors. We develop novel methods to generate 24k semiautomatic pairs as well as manually creating 1.8k gold pairs. We use IMPLI to evaluate NLI models based on RoBERTa fine-tuned on the widely used MNLI dataset. We then show that while they can reliably detect entailment relationship between figurative phrases with their literal counterparts, they perform poorly on similarly structured examples where pairs are designed to be non-entailing. This suggests the limits of current NLI models with regard to understanding figurative language and this dataset serves as a benchmark for future improvements in this direction.


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Exploring Metaphoric Paraphrase Generation
Kevin Stowe | Nils Beck | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Metaphor generation is a difficult task, and has seen tremendous improvement with the advent of deep pretrained models. We focus here on the specific task of metaphoric paraphrase generation, in which we provide a literal sentence and generate a metaphoric sentence which paraphrases that input. We compare naive, “free” generation models with those that exploit forms of control over the generation process, adding additional information based on conceptual metaphor theory. We evaluate two methods for generating paired training data, which is then used to train T5 models for free and controlled generation. We use crowdsourcing to evaluate the results, showing that free models tend to generate more fluent paraphrases, while controlled models are better at generating novel metaphors. We then analyze evaluation metrics, showing that different metrics are necessary to capture different aspects of metaphoric paraphrasing. We release our data and models, as well as our annotated results in order to facilitate development of better evaluation metrics.

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SemLink 2.0: Chasing Lexical Resources
Kevin Stowe | Jenette Preciado | Kathryn Conger | Susan Windisch Brown | Ghazaleh Kazeminejad | James Gung | Martha Palmer
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS)

The SemLink resource provides mappings between a variety of lexical semantic ontologies, each with their strengths and weaknesses. To take advantage of these differences, the ability to move between resources is essential. This work describes advances made to improve the usability of the SemLink resource: the automatic addition of new instances and mappings, manual corrections, sense-based vectors and collocation information, and architecture built to automatically update the resource when versions of the underlying resources change. These updates improve coverage, provide new tools to leverage the capabilities of these resources, and facilitate seamless updates, ensuring the consistency and applicability of these mappings in the future.

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Metaphor Generation with Conceptual Mappings
Kevin Stowe | Tuhin Chakrabarty | Nanyun Peng | Smaranda Muresan | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Generating metaphors is a difficult task as it requires understanding nuanced relationships between abstract concepts. In this paper, we aim to generate a metaphoric sentence given a literal expression by replacing relevant verbs. Guided by conceptual metaphor theory, we propose to control the generation process by encoding conceptual mappings between cognitive domains to generate meaningful metaphoric expressions. To achieve this, we develop two methods: 1) using FrameNet-based embeddings to learn mappings between domains and applying them at the lexical level (CM-Lex), and 2) deriving source/target pairs to train a controlled seq-to-seq generation model (CM-BART). We assess our methods through automatic and human evaluation for basic metaphoricity and conceptual metaphor presence. We show that the unsupervised CM-Lex model is competitive with recent deep learning metaphor generation systems, and CM-BART outperforms all other models both in automatic and human evaluations.


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Linguistic Analysis Improves Neural Metaphor Detection
Kevin Stowe | Sarah Moeller | Laura Michaelis | Martha Palmer
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

In the field of metaphor detection, deep learning systems are the ubiquitous and achieve strong performance on many tasks. However, due to the complicated procedures for manually identifying metaphors, the datasets available are relatively small and fraught with complications. We show that using syntactic features and lexical resources can automatically provide additional high-quality training data for metaphoric language, and this data can cover gaps and inconsistencies in metaphor annotation, improving state-of-the-art word-level metaphor identification. This novel application of automatically improving training data improves classification across numerous tasks, and reconfirms the necessity of high-quality data for deep learning frameworks.


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Leveraging Syntactic Constructions for Metaphor Identification
Kevin Stowe | Martha Palmer
Proceedings of the Workshop on Figurative Language Processing

Identification of metaphoric language in text is critical for generating effective semantic representations for natural language understanding. Computational approaches to metaphor identification have largely relied on heuristic based models or feature-based machine learning, using hand-crafted lexical resources coupled with basic syntactic information. However, recent work has shown the predictive power of syntactic constructions in determining metaphoric source and target domains (Sullivan 2013). Our work intends to explore syntactic constructions and their relation to metaphoric language. We undertake a corpus-based analysis of predicate-argument constructions and their metaphoric properties, and attempt to effectively represent syntactic constructions as features for metaphor processing, both in identifying source and target domains and in distinguishing metaphoric words from non-metaphoric.

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Improving Classification of Twitter Behavior During Hurricane Events
Kevin Stowe | Jennings Anderson | Martha Palmer | Leysia Palen | Ken Anderson
Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

A large amount of social media data is generated during natural disasters, and identifying the relevant portions of this data is critical for researchers attempting to understand human behavior, the effects of information sources, and preparatory actions undertaken during these events. In order to classify human behavior during hazard events, we employ machine learning for two tasks: identifying hurricane related tweets and classifying user evacuation behavior during hurricanes. We show that feature-based and deep learning methods provide different benefits for tweet classification, and ensemble-based methods using linguistic, temporal, and geospatial features can effectively classify user behavior.

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Developing and Evaluating Annotation Procedures for Twitter Data during Hazard Events
Kevin Stowe | Martha Palmer | Jennings Anderson | Marina Kogan | Leysia Palen | Kenneth M. Anderson | Rebecca Morss | Julie Demuth | Heather Lazrus
Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Linguistic Annotation, Multiword Expressions and Constructions (LAW-MWE-CxG-2018)

When a hazard such as a hurricane threatens, people are forced to make a wide variety of decisions, and the information they receive and produce can influence their own and others’ actions. As social media grows more popular, an increasing number of people are using social media platforms to obtain and share information about approaching threats and discuss their interpretations of the threat and their protective decisions. This work aims to improve understanding of natural disasters through social media and provide an annotation scheme to identify themes in user’s social media behavior and facilitate efforts in supervised machine learning. To that end, this work has three contributions: (1) the creation of an annotation scheme to consistently identify hazard-related themes in Twitter, (2) an overview of agreement rates and difficulties in identifying annotation categories, and (3) a public release of both the dataset and guidelines developed from this scheme.


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Identifying and Categorizing Disaster-Related Tweets
Kevin Stowe | Michael J. Paul | Martha Palmer | Leysia Palen | Kenneth Anderson
Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media


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Renewing and Revising SemLink
Claire Bonial | Kevin Stowe | Martha Palmer
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Linked Data in Linguistics (LDL-2013): Representing and linking lexicons, terminologies and other language data