Kexin Wang


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Parameter-Efficient Transfer Learning for End-to-end Speech Translation
Yunlong Zhao | Kexin Wang | Qianqian Dong | Tom Ko
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Recently, end-to-end speech translation (ST) has gained significant attention in research, but its progress is hindered by the limited availability of labeled data. To overcome this challenge, leveraging pre-trained models for knowledge transfer in ST has emerged as a promising direction. In this paper, we propose PETL-ST, which investigates parameter-efficient transfer learning for end-to-end speech translation. Our method utilizes two lightweight adaptation techniques, namely prefix and adapter, to modulate Attention and the Feed-Forward Network, respectively, while preserving the capabilities of pre-trained models. We conduct experiments on MuST-C En-De, Es, Fr, Ru datasets to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results demonstrate that PETL-ST outperforms strong baselines, achieving superior translation quality with high parameter efficiency. Moreover, our method exhibits remarkable data efficiency and significantly improves performance in low-resource settings.


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AdaSent: Efficient Domain-Adapted Sentence Embeddings for Few-Shot Classification
Yongxin Huang | Kexin Wang | Sourav Dutta | Raj Patel | Goran Glavaš | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent work has found that few-shot sentence classification based on pre-trained Sentence Encoders (SEs) is efficient, robust, and effective. In this work, we investigate strategies for domain-specialization in the context of few-shot sentence classification with SEs. We first establish that unsupervised Domain-Adaptive Pre-Training (DAPT) of a base Pre-trained Language Model (PLM) (i.e., not an SE) substantially improves the accuracy of few-shot sentence classification by up to 8.4 points. However, applying DAPT on SEs, on the one hand, disrupts the effects of their (general-domain) Sentence Embedding Pre-Training (SEPT). On the other hand, applying general-domain SEPT on top of a domain-adapted base PLM (i.e., after DAPT) is effective but inefficient, since the computationally expensive SEPT needs to be executed on top of a DAPT-ed PLM of each domain. As a solution, we propose AdaSent, which decouples SEPT from DAPT by training a SEPT adapter on the base PLM. The adapter can be inserted into DAPT-ed PLMs from any domain. We demonstrate AdaSent’s effectiveness in extensive experiments on 17 different few-shot sentence classification datasets. AdaSent matches or surpasses the performance of full SEPT on DAPT-ed PLM, while substantially reducing the training costs. The code for AdaSent is available.

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Semantic Similarity Models for Depression Severity Estimation
Anxo Pérez | Neha Warikoo | Kexin Wang | Javier Parapar | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Depressive disorders constitute a severe public health issue worldwide. However, public health systems have limited capacity for case detection and diagnosis. In this regard, the widespread use of social media has opened up a way to access public information on a large scale. Computational methods can serve as support tools for rapid screening by exploiting this user-generated social media content. This paper presents an efficient semantic pipeline to study depression severity in individuals based on their social media writings. We select test user sentences for producing semantic rankings over an index of representative training sentences corresponding to depressive symptoms and severity levels. Then, we use the sentences from those results as evidence for predicting symptoms severity. For that, we explore different aggregation methods to answer one of four Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) options per symptom. We evaluate our methods on two Reddit-based benchmarks, achieving improvement over state of the art in terms of measuring depression level.

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MOSPC: MOS Prediction Based on Pairwise Comparison
Kexin Wang | Yunlong Zhao | Qianqian Dong | Tom Ko | Mingxuan Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

As a subjective metric to evaluate the quality of synthesized speech, Mean opinion score(MOS) usually requires multiple annotators to score the same speech. Such an annotation approach requires a lot of manpower and is also time-consuming. MOS prediction model for automatic evaluation can significantly reduce labor cost. In previous works, it is difficult to accurately rank the quality of speech when the MOS scores are close. However, in practical applications, it is more important to correctly rank the quality of synthesis systems or sentences than simply predicting MOS scores. Meanwhile, as each annotator scores multiple audios during annotation, the score is probably a relative value based on the first or the first few speech scores given by the annotator. Motivated by the above two points, we propose a general framework for MOS prediction based on pair comparison (MOSPC), and we utilize C-Mixup algorithm to enhance the generalization performance of MOSPC.The experiments on BVCC and VCC2018 show that our framework outperforms the baselines on most of the correlation coefficient metrics, especially on the metric KTAU related to quality ranking. And our framework also surpasses the strong baseline in ranking accuracy on each fine-grained segment. These results indicate that our framework contributes to improving the ranking accuracy of speech quality.

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UKP-SQuARE v3: A Platform for Multi-Agent QA Research
Haritz Puerto | Tim Baumgärtner | Rachneet Sachdeva | Haishuo Fang | Hao Zhang | Sewin Tariverdian | Kexin Wang | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

The continuous development of Question Answering (QA) datasets has drawn the research community’s attention toward multi-domain models. A popular approach is to use multi-dataset models, which are models trained on multiple datasets to learn their regularities and prevent overfitting to a single dataset. However, with the proliferation of QA models in online repositories such as GitHub or Hugging Face, an alternative is becoming viable. Recent works have demonstrated that combining expert agents can yield large performance gains over multi-dataset models. To ease research in multi-agent models, we extend UKP-SQuARE, an online platform for QA research, to support three families of multi-agent systems: i) agent selection, ii) early-fusion of agents, and iii) late-fusion of agents. We conduct experiments to evaluate their inference speed and discuss the performance vs. speed trade-off compared to multi-dataset models. UKP-SQuARE is open-source and publicly available.


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UKP-SQuARE v2: Explainability and Adversarial Attacks for Trustworthy QA
Rachneet Sachdeva | Haritz Puerto | Tim Baumgärtner | Sewin Tariverdian | Hao Zhang | Kexin Wang | Hossain Shaikh Saadi | Leonardo F. R. Ribeiro | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Question Answering (QA) systems are increasingly deployed in applications where they support real-world decisions. However, state-of-the-art models rely on deep neural networks, which are difficult to interpret by humans. Inherently interpretable models or post hoc explainability methods can help users to comprehend how a model arrives at its prediction and, if successful, increase their trust in the system. Furthermore, researchers can leverage these insights to develop new methods that are more accurate and less biased. In this paper, we introduce SQuARE v2, the new version of SQuARE, to provide an explainability infrastructure for comparing models based on methods such as saliency maps and graph-based explanations. While saliency maps are useful to inspect the importance of each input token for the model’s prediction, graph-based explanations from external Knowledge Graphs enable the users to verify the reasoning behind the model prediction. In addition, we provide multiple adversarial attacks to compare the robustness of QA models. With these explainability methods and adversarial attacks, we aim to ease the research on trustworthy QA models. SQuARE is available on

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UKP-SQUARE: An Online Platform for Question Answering Research
Tim Baumgärtner | Kexin Wang | Rachneet Sachdeva | Gregor Geigle | Max Eichler | Clifton Poth | Hannah Sterz | Haritz Puerto | Leonardo F. R. Ribeiro | Jonas Pfeiffer | Nils Reimers | Gözde Şahin | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Recent advances in NLP and information retrieval have given rise to a diverse set of question answering tasks that are of different formats (e.g., extractive, abstractive), require different model architectures (e.g., generative, discriminative), and setups (e.g., with or without retrieval). Despite having a large number of powerful, specialized QA pipelines (which we refer to as Skills) that consider a single domain, model or setup, there exists no framework where users can easily explore and compare such pipelines and can extend them according to their needs. To address this issue, we present UKP-SQuARE, an extensible online QA platform for researchers which allows users to query and analyze a large collection of modern Skills via a user-friendly web interface and integrated behavioural tests. In addition, QA researchers can develop, manage, and share their custom Skills using our microservices that support a wide range of models (Transformers, Adapters, ONNX), datastores and retrieval techniques (e.g., sparse and dense). UKP-SQuARE is available on

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GPL: Generative Pseudo Labeling for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation of Dense Retrieval
Kexin Wang | Nandan Thakur | Nils Reimers | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Dense retrieval approaches can overcome the lexical gap and lead to significantly improved search results. However, they require large amounts of training data which is not available for most domains. As shown in previous work (Thakur et al., 2021b), the performance of dense retrievers severely degrades under a domain shift. This limits the usage of dense retrieval approaches to only a few domains with large training datasets. In this paper, we propose the novel unsupervised domain adaptation method Generative Pseudo Labeling (GPL), which combines a query generator with pseudo labeling from a cross-encoder. On six representative domain-specialized datasets, we find the proposed GPL can outperform an out-of-the-box state-of-the-art dense retrieval approach by up to 9.3 points nDCG@10. GPL requires less (unlabeled) data from the target domain and is more robust in its training than previous methods. We further investigate the role of six recent pre-training methods in the scenario of domain adaptation for retrieval tasks, where only three could yield improved results. The best approach, TSDAE (Wang et al., 2021) can be combined with GPL, yielding another average improvement of 1.4 points nDCG@10 across the six tasks. The code and the models are available at


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TSDAE: Using Transformer-based Sequential Denoising Auto-Encoderfor Unsupervised Sentence Embedding Learning
Kexin Wang | Nils Reimers | Iryna Gurevych
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Learning sentence embeddings often requires a large amount of labeled data. However, for most tasks and domains, labeled data is seldom available and creating it is expensive. In this work, we present a new state-of-the-art unsupervised method based on pre-trained Transformers and Sequential Denoising Auto-Encoder (TSDAE) which outperforms previous approaches by up to 6.4 points. It can achieve up to 93.1% of the performance of in-domain supervised approaches. Further, we show that TSDAE is a strong domain adaptation and pre-training method for sentence embeddings, significantly outperforming other approaches like Masked Language Model. A crucial shortcoming of previous studies is the narrow evaluation: Most work mainly evaluates on the single task of Semantic Textual Similarity (STS), which does not require any domain knowledge. It is unclear if these proposed methods generalize to other domains and tasks. We fill this gap and evaluate TSDAE and other recent approaches on four different datasets from heterogeneous domains.