Khyathi Raghavi Chandu


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LOWRECORP: the Low-Resource NLG Corpus Building Challenge
Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | David M. Howcroft | Dimitra Gkatzia | Yi-Ling Chung | Yufang Hou | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Pawan Rajpoot | Tosin Adewumi
Proceedings of the 16th International Natural Language Generation Conference: Generation Challenges

Most languages in the world do not have sufficient data available to develop neural-network-based natural language generation (NLG) systems. To alleviate this resource scarcity, we propose a novel challenge for the NLG community: low-resource language corpus development (LOWRECORP). We present an innovative framework to collect a single dataset with dual tasks to maximize the efficiency of data collection efforts and respect language consultant time. Specifically, we focus on a text-chat-based interface for two generation tasks – conversational response generation grounded in a source document and/or image and dialogue summarization (from the former task). The goal of this shared task is to collectively develop grounded datasets for local and low-resourced languages. To enable data collection, we make available web-based software that can be used to collect these grounded conversations and summaries. Submissions will be assessed for the size, complexity, and diversity of the corpora to ensure quality control of the datasets as well as any enhancements to the interface or novel approaches to grounding conversations.

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A Needle in a Haystack: An Analysis of High-Agreement Workers on MTurk for Summarization
Lining Zhang | Simon Mille | Yufang Hou | Daniel Deutsch | Elizabeth Clark | Yixin Liu | Saad Mahamood | Sebastian Gehrmann | Miruna Clinciu | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | João Sedoc
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

To prevent the costly and inefficient use of resources on low-quality annotations, we want a method for creating a pool of dependable annotators who can effectively complete difficult tasks, such as evaluating automatic summarization. Thus, we investigate the recruitment of high-quality Amazon Mechanical Turk workers via a two-step pipeline. We show that we can successfully filter out subpar workers before they carry out the evaluations and obtain high-agreement annotations with similar constraints on resources. Although our workers demonstrate a strong consensus among themselves and CloudResearch workers, their alignment with expert judgments on a subset of the data is not as expected and needs further training in correctness. This paper still serves as a best practice for the recruitment of qualified annotators in other challenging annotation tasks.


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Denoising Large-Scale Image Captioning from Alt-text Data Using Content Selection Models
Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Piyush Sharma | Soravit Changpinyo | Ashish V. Thapliyal | Radu Soricut
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Training large-scale image captioning (IC) models demands access to a rich and diverse set of training examples that are expensive to curate both in terms of time and man-power. Instead, alt-text based captions gathered from the web is a far cheaper alternative to scale with the downside of being noisy. Recent modeling approaches to IC often fall short in terms of performance in leveraging these noisy datasets in favor of clean annotations. We address this problem with a simple yet effective technique of breaking down the task into two smaller, more controllable tasks – skeleton prediction and skeleton-based caption generation. Specifically, we show that sub-selecting content words as skeletons helps in generating improved and denoised captions when leveraging rich yet noisy alt-text–based uncurated datasets. We also show that the predicted English skeletons can further cross-lingually be leveraged to generate non-English captions, and present experimental results covering caption generation in French, Italian, German, Spanish and Hindi. We also show that skeleton-based prediction allows for better control of certain caption properties, such as length, content, and gender expression, providing a handle to perform human-in-the-loop interpretable semi-automatic corrections.

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GEMv2: Multilingual NLG Benchmarking in a Single Line of Code
Sebastian Gehrmann | Abhik Bhattacharjee | Abinaya Mahendiran | Alex Wang | Alexandros Papangelis | Aman Madaan | Angelina Mcmillan-major | Anna Shvets | Ashish Upadhyay | Bernd Bohnet | Bingsheng Yao | Bryan Wilie | Chandra Bhagavatula | Chaobin You | Craig Thomson | Cristina Garbacea | Dakuo Wang | Daniel Deutsch | Deyi Xiong | Di Jin | Dimitra Gkatzia | Dragomir Radev | Elizabeth Clark | Esin Durmus | Faisal Ladhak | Filip Ginter | Genta Indra Winata | Hendrik Strobelt | Hiroaki Hayashi | Jekaterina Novikova | Jenna Kanerva | Jenny Chim | Jiawei Zhou | Jordan Clive | Joshua Maynez | João Sedoc | Juraj Juraska | Kaustubh Dhole | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Laura Perez Beltrachini | Leonardo F . R. Ribeiro | Lewis Tunstall | Li Zhang | Mahim Pushkarna | Mathias Creutz | Michael White | Mihir Sanjay Kale | Moussa Kamal Eddine | Nico Daheim | Nishant Subramani | Ondrej Dusek | Paul Pu Liang | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Qi Zhu | Ratish Puduppully | Reno Kriz | Rifat Shahriyar | Ronald Cardenas | Saad Mahamood | Salomey Osei | Samuel Cahyawijaya | Sanja Štajner | Sebastien Montella | Shailza Jolly | Simon Mille | Tahmid Hasan | Tianhao Shen | Tosin Adewumi | Vikas Raunak | Vipul Raheja | Vitaly Nikolaev | Vivian Tsai | Yacine Jernite | Ying Xu | Yisi Sang | Yixin Liu | Yufang Hou
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Evaluations in machine learning rarely use the latest metrics, datasets, or human evaluation in favor of remaining compatible with prior work. The compatibility, often facilitated through leaderboards, thus leads to outdated but standardized evaluation practices. We pose that the standardization is taking place in the wrong spot. Evaluation infrastructure should enable researchers to use the latest methods and what should be standardized instead is how to incorporate these new evaluation advances. We introduce GEMv2, the new version of the Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics Benchmark which uses a modular infrastructure for dataset, model, and metric developers to benefit from each other’s work. GEMv2 supports 40 documented datasets in 51 languages, ongoing online evaluation for all datasets, and our interactive tools make it easier to add new datasets to the living benchmark.


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The GEM Benchmark: Natural Language Generation, its Evaluation and Metrics
Sebastian Gehrmann | Tosin Adewumi | Karmanya Aggarwal | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Antoine Bosselut | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Miruna-Adriana Clinciu | Dipanjan Das | Kaustubh Dhole | Wanyu Du | Esin Durmus | Ondřej Dušek | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Varun Gangal | Cristina Garbacea | Tatsunori Hashimoto | Yufang Hou | Yacine Jernite | Harsh Jhamtani | Yangfeng Ji | Shailza Jolly | Mihir Kale | Dhruv Kumar | Faisal Ladhak | Aman Madaan | Mounica Maddela | Khyati Mahajan | Saad Mahamood | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Pedro Henrique Martins | Angelina McMillan-Major | Simon Mille | Emiel van Miltenburg | Moin Nadeem | Shashi Narayan | Vitaly Nikolaev | Andre Niyongabo Rubungo | Salomey Osei | Ankur Parikh | Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Niranjan Ramesh Rao | Vikas Raunak | Juan Diego Rodriguez | Sashank Santhanam | João Sedoc | Thibault Sellam | Samira Shaikh | Anastasia Shimorina | Marco Antonio Sobrevilla Cabezudo | Hendrik Strobelt | Nishant Subramani | Wei Xu | Diyi Yang | Akhila Yerukola | Jiawei Zhou
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM 2021)

We introduce GEM, a living benchmark for natural language Generation (NLG), its Evaluation, and Metrics. Measuring progress in NLG relies on a constantly evolving ecosystem of automated metrics, datasets, and human evaluation standards. Due to this moving target, new models often still evaluate on divergent anglo-centric corpora with well-established, but flawed, metrics. This disconnect makes it challenging to identify the limitations of current models and opportunities for progress. Addressing this limitation, GEM provides an environment in which models can easily be applied to a wide set of tasks and in which evaluation strategies can be tested. Regular updates to the benchmark will help NLG research become more multilingual and evolve the challenge alongside models. This paper serves as the description of the data for the 2021 shared task at the associated GEM Workshop.

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Grounding ‘Grounding’ in NLP
Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Yonatan Bisk | Alan W Black
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Switch Point biased Self-Training: Re-purposing Pretrained Models for Code-Switching
Parul Chopra | Sai Krishna Rallabandi | Alan W Black | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Code-switching (CS), a ubiquitous phenomenon due to the ease of communication it offers in multilingual communities still remains an understudied problem in language processing. The primary reasons behind this are: (1) minimal efforts in leveraging large pretrained multilingual models, and (2) the lack of annotated data. The distinguishing case of low performance of multilingual models in CS is the intra-sentence mixing of languages leading to switch points. We first benchmark two sequence labeling tasks – POS and NER on 4 different language pairs with a suite of pretrained models to identify the problems and select the best performing char-BERT model among them (addressing (1)). We then propose a self training method to repurpose the existing pretrained models using a switch-point bias by leveraging unannotated data (addressing (2)). We finally demonstrate that our approach performs well on both tasks by reducing the gap between the switch point performance while retaining the overall performance on two distinct language pairs in both the tasks. We plan to release our models and the code for all our experiments.

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CodemixedNLP: An Extensible and Open NLP Toolkit for Code-Mixing
Sai Muralidhar Jayanthi | Kavya Nerella | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Alan W Black
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

The NLP community has witnessed steep progress in a variety of tasks across the realms of monolingual and multilingual language processing recently. These successes, in conjunction with the proliferating mixed language interactions on social media, have boosted interest in modeling code-mixed texts. In this work, we present CodemixedNLP, an open-source library with the goals of bringing together the advances in code-mixed NLP and opening it up to a wider machine learning community. The library consists of tools to develop and benchmark versatile model architectures that are tailored for mixed texts, methods to expand training sets, techniques to quantify mixing styles, and fine-tuned state-of-the-art models for 7 tasks in Hinglish. We believe this work has the potential to foster a distributed yet collaborative and sustainable ecosystem in an otherwise dispersed space of code-mixing research. The toolkit is designed to be simple, easily extensible, and resourceful to both researchers as well as practitioners. Demo: and Library:


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Reading Between the Lines: Exploring Infilling in Visual Narratives
Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Ruo-Ping Dong | Alan W Black
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Generating long form narratives such as stories and procedures from multiple modalities has been a long standing dream for artificial intelligence. In this regard, there is often crucial subtext that is derived from the surrounding contexts. The general seq2seq training methods render the models shorthanded while attempting to bridge the gap between these neighbouring contexts. In this paper, we tackle this problem by using infilling techniques involving prediction of missing steps in a narrative while generating textual descriptions from a sequence of images. We also present a new large scale visual procedure telling (ViPT) dataset with a total of 46,200 procedures and around 340k pairwise images and textual descriptions that is rich in such contextual dependencies. Generating steps using infilling technique demonstrates the effectiveness in visual procedures with more coherent texts. We conclusively show a METEOR score of 27.51 on procedures which is higher than the state-of-the-art on visual storytelling. We also demonstrate the effects of interposing new text with missing images during inference. The code and the dataset will be publicly available at

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Proceedings of the The Fourth Widening Natural Language Processing Workshop
Rossana Cunha | Samira Shaikh | Erika Varis | Ryan Georgi | Alicia Tsai | Antonios Anastasopoulos | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu
Proceedings of the The Fourth Widening Natural Language Processing Workshop