Recent transformer language models achieve outstanding results in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, their enormous size often makes them impractical on memory-constrained devices, requiring practitioners to compress them to smaller networks. In this paper, we explore offline compression methods, meaning computationally-cheap approaches that do not require further fine-tuning of the compressed model. We challenge the classical matrix factorization methods by proposing a novel, better-performing autoencoder-based framework. We perform a comprehensive ablation study of our approach, examining its different aspects over a diverse set of evaluation settings. Moreover, we show that enabling collaboration between modules across layers by compressing certain modules together positively impacts the final model performance. Experiments on various NLP tasks demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms commonly used factorization-based offline compression methods.
We propose a novel gradient-based attack against transformer-based language models that searches for an adversarial example in a continuous space of tokens probabilities. Our algorithm mitigates the gap between adversarial loss for continuous and discrete text representations by performing multi-step quantization in a quantization-compensation loop. Experiments show that our method significantly outperforms other approaches on various natural language processing (NLP) tasks.
The adoption of Transformer-based models in natural language processing (NLP) has led to great success using a massive number of parameters. However, due to deployment constraints in edge devices, there has been a rising interest in the compression of these models to improve their inference time and memory footprint. This paper presents a novel loss objective to compress token embeddings in the Transformer-based models by leveraging an AutoEncoder architecture. More specifically, we emphasize the importance of the direction of compressed embeddings with respect to original uncompressed embeddings. The proposed method is task-agnostic and does not require further language modeling pre-training. Our method significantly outperforms the commonly used SVD-based matrix-factorization approach in terms of initial language model Perplexity. Moreover, we evaluate our proposed approach over SQuAD v1.1 dataset and several downstream tasks from the GLUE benchmark, where we also outperform the baseline in most scenarios. Our code is public.