Konrad Karanowski


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PALS: Personalized Active Learning for Subjective Tasks in NLP
Kamil Kanclerz | Konrad Karanowski | Julita Bielaniewicz | Marcin Gruza | Piotr Miłkowski | Jan Kocon | Przemyslaw Kazienko
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

For subjective NLP problems, such as classification of hate speech, aggression, or emotions, personalized solutions can be exploited. Then, the learned models infer about the perception of the content independently for each reader. To acquire training data, texts are commonly randomly assigned to users for annotation, which is expensive and highly inefficient. Therefore, for the first time, we suggest applying an active learning paradigm in a personalized context to better learn individual preferences. It aims to alleviate the labeling effort by selecting more relevant training samples. In this paper, we present novel Personalized Active Learning techniques for Subjective NLP tasks (PALS) to either reduce the cost of the annotation process or to boost the learning effect. Our five new measures allow us to determine the relevance of a text in the context of learning users personal preferences. We validated them on three datasets: Wiki discussion texts individually labeled with aggression and toxicity, and on Unhealthy Conversations dataset. Our PALS techniques outperform random selection even by more than 30%. They can also be used to reduce the number of necessary annotations while maintaining a given quality level. Personalized annotation assignments based on our controversy measure decrease the amount of data needed to just 25%-40% of the initial size.


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What If Ground Truth Is Subjective? Personalized Deep Neural Hate Speech Detection
Kamil Kanclerz | Marcin Gruza | Konrad Karanowski | Julita Bielaniewicz | Piotr Milkowski | Jan Kocon | Przemyslaw Kazienko
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Perspectivist Approaches to NLP @LREC2022

A unified gold standard commonly exploited in natural language processing (NLP) tasks requires high inter-annotator agreement. However, there are many subjective problems that should respect users individual points of view. Therefore in this paper, we evaluate three different personalized methods on the task of hate speech detection. The user-centered techniques are compared to the generalizing baseline approach. We conduct our experiments on three datasets including single-task and multi-task hate speech detection. For validation purposes, we introduce a new data-split strategy, preventing data leakage between training and testing. In order to better understand the model behavior for individual users, we carried out personalized ablation studies. Our experiments revealed that all models leveraging user preferences in any case provide significantly better results than most frequently used generalized approaches. This supports our overall observation that personalized models should always be considered in all subjective NLP tasks, including hate speech detection.