Kosuke Nishida


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Self-Adaptive Named Entity Recognition by Retrieving Unstructured Knowledge
Kosuke Nishida | Naoki Yoshinaga | Kyosuke Nishida
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Although named entity recognition (NER) helps us to extract domain-specific entities from text (e.g., artists in the music domain), it is costly to create a large amount of training data or a structured knowledge base to perform accurate NER in the target domain. Here, we propose self-adaptive NER, which retrieves external knowledge from unstructured text to learn the usages of entities that have not been learned well. To retrieve useful knowledge for NER, we design an effective two-stage model that retrieves unstructured knowledge using uncertain entities as queries. Our model predicts the entities in the input and then finds those of which the prediction is not confident. Then, it retrieves knowledge by using these uncertain entities as queries and concatenates the retrieved text to the original input to revise the prediction. Experiments on CrossNER datasets demonstrated that our model outperforms strong baselines by 2.35 points in F1 metric.

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Sparse Neural Retrieval Model for Efficient Cross-Domain Retrieval-Based Question Answering
Kosuke Nishida | Naoki Yoshinaga | Kyosuke Nishida
Proceedings of the 37th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation


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Improving Few-Shot Image Classification Using Machine- and User-Generated Natural Language Descriptions
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Shuichi Nishioka
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Humans can obtain the knowledge of novel visual concepts from language descriptions, and we thus use the few-shot image classification task to investigate whether a machine learning model can have this capability. Our proposed model, LIDE (Learning from Image and DEscription), has a text decoder to generate the descriptions and a text encoder to obtain the text representations of machine- or user-generated descriptions. We confirmed that LIDE with machine-generated descriptions outperformed baseline models. Moreover, the performance was improved further with high-quality user-generated descriptions. The generated descriptions can be viewed as the explanations of the model’s predictions, and we observed that such explanations were consistent with prediction results. We also investigated why the language description improves the few-shot image classification performance by comparing the image representations and the text representations in the feature spaces.


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Task-adaptive Pre-training of Language Models with Word Embedding Regularization
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Sen Yoshida
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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Unsupervised Domain Adaptation of Language Models for Reading Comprehension
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Itsumi Saito | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This study tackles unsupervised domain adaptation of reading comprehension (UDARC). Reading comprehension (RC) is a task to learn the capability for question answering with textual sources. State-of-the-art models on RC still do not have general linguistic intelligence; i.e., their accuracy worsens for out-domain datasets that are not used in the training. We hypothesize that this discrepancy is caused by a lack of the language modeling (LM) capability for the out-domain. The UDARC task allows models to use supervised RC training data in the source domain and only unlabeled passages in the target domain. To solve the UDARC problem, we provide two domain adaptation models. The first one learns the out-domain LM and in-domain RC task sequentially. The second one is the proposed model that uses a multi-task learning approach of LM and RC. The models can retain both the RC capability acquired from the supervised data in the source domain and the LM capability from the unlabeled data in the target domain. We evaluated the models on UDARC with five datasets in different domains. The models outperformed the model without domain adaptation. In particular, the proposed model yielded an improvement of 4.3/4.2 points in EM/F1 in an unseen biomedical domain.


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Multi-style Generative Reading Comprehension
Kyosuke Nishida | Itsumi Saito | Kosuke Nishida | Kazutoshi Shinoda | Atsushi Otsuka | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This study tackles generative reading comprehension (RC), which consists of answering questions based on textual evidence and natural language generation (NLG). We propose a multi-style abstractive summarization model for question answering, called Masque. The proposed model has two key characteristics. First, unlike most studies on RC that have focused on extracting an answer span from the provided passages, our model instead focuses on generating a summary from the question and multiple passages. This serves to cover various answer styles required for real-world applications. Second, whereas previous studies built a specific model for each answer style because of the difficulty of acquiring one general model, our approach learns multi-style answers within a model to improve the NLG capability for all styles involved. This also enables our model to give an answer in the target style. Experiments show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Q&A task and the Q&A + NLG task of MS MARCO 2.1 and the summary task of NarrativeQA. We observe that the transfer of the style-independent NLG capability to the target style is the key to its success.

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Answering while Summarizing: Multi-task Learning for Multi-hop QA with Evidence Extraction
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Masaaki Nagata | Atsushi Otsuka | Itsumi Saito | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Question answering (QA) using textual sources for purposes such as reading comprehension (RC) has attracted much attention. This study focuses on the task of explainable multi-hop QA, which requires the system to return the answer with evidence sentences by reasoning and gathering disjoint pieces of the reference texts. It proposes the Query Focused Extractor (QFE) model for evidence extraction and uses multi-task learning with the QA model. QFE is inspired by extractive summarization models; compared with the existing method, which extracts each evidence sentence independently, it sequentially extracts evidence sentences by using an RNN with an attention mechanism on the question sentence. It enables QFE to consider the dependency among the evidence sentences and cover important information in the question sentence. Experimental results show that QFE with a simple RC baseline model achieves a state-of-the-art evidence extraction score on HotpotQA. Although designed for RC, it also achieves a state-of-the-art evidence extraction score on FEVER, which is a recognizing textual entailment task on a large textual database.


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Natural Language Inference with Definition Embedding Considering Context On the Fly
Kosuke Nishida | Kyosuke Nishida | Hisako Asano | Junji Tomita
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP

Natural language inference (NLI) is one of the most important tasks in NLP. In this study, we propose a novel method using word dictionaries, which are pairs of a word and its definition, as external knowledge. Our neural definition embedding mechanism encodes input sentences with the definitions of each word of the sentences on the fly. It can encode the definition of words considering the context of input sentences by using an attention mechanism. We evaluated our method using WordNet as a dictionary and confirmed that our method performed better than baseline models when using the full or a subset of 100d GloVe as word embeddings.