Krishnateja Killamsetty


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INGENIOUS: Using Informative Data Subsets for Efficient Pre-Training of Language Models
H S V N S Kowndinya Renduchintala | Krishnateja Killamsetty | Sumit Bhatia | Milan Aggarwal | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer | Balaji Krishnamurthy
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

A salient characteristic of pre-trained language models (PTLMs) is a remarkable improvement in their generalization capability and emergence of new capabilities with increasing model capacity and pre-training dataset size. Consequently, we are witnessing the development of enormous models pushing the state-of-the-art. It is, however, imperative to realize that this inevitably leads to prohibitively long training times, extortionate computing costs, and a detrimental environmental impact. Significant efforts are underway to make PTLM training more efficient through innovations in model architectures, training pipelines, and loss function design, with scant attention being paid to optimizing the utility of training data. The key question that we ask is whether it is possible to train PTLMs by employing only highly informative subsets of the training data while maintaining downstream performance? Building upon the recent progress in informative data subset selection, we show how we can employ submodular optimization to select highly representative subsets of the training corpora and demonstrate that the proposed framework can be applied to efficiently train multiple PTLMs (BERT, BioBERT, GPT-2) using only a fraction of data. Further, we perform a rigorous empirical evaluation to show that the resulting models achieve up to ~99% of the performance of the fully-trained models. We made our framework publicly available at


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Learning to Robustly Aggregate Labeling Functions for Semi-supervised Data Programming
Ayush Maheshwari | Krishnateja Killamsetty | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer | Marina Danilevsky | Lucian Popa
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

A critical bottleneck in supervised machine learning is the need for large amounts of labeled data which is expensive and time-consuming to obtain. Although a small amount of labeled data cannot be used to train a model, it can be used effectively for the generation of humaninterpretable labeling functions (LFs). These LFs, in turn, have been used to generate a large amount of additional noisy labeled data in a paradigm that is now commonly referred to as data programming. Previous methods of generating LFs do not attempt to use the given labeled data further to train a model, thus missing opportunities for improving performance. Additionally, since the LFs are generated automatically, they are likely to be noisy, and naively aggregating these LFs can lead to suboptimal results. In this work, we propose an LF-based bi-level optimization framework WISDOM to solve these two critical limitations. WISDOM learns a joint model on the (same) labeled dataset used for LF induction along with any unlabeled data in a semi-supervised manner, and more critically, reweighs each LF according to its goodness, influencing its contribution to the semi-supervised loss using a robust bi-level optimization algorithm. We show that WISDOM significantly outperforms prior approaches on several text classification datasets.


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Semi-Supervised Data Programming with Subset Selection
Ayush Maheshwari | Oishik Chatterjee | Krishnateja Killamsetty | Ganesh Ramakrishnan | Rishabh Iyer
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021