Kuan-Hao Huang

Also published as: Kuan-hao Huang


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Understanding and Mitigating Spurious Correlations in Text Classification with Neighborhood Analysis
Oscar Chew | Hsuan-Tien Lin | Kai-Wei Chang | Kuan-Hao Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2024

Recent research has revealed that machine learning models have a tendency to leverage spurious correlations that exist in the training set but may not hold true in general circumstances. For instance, a sentiment classifier may erroneously learn that the token “performances” is commonly associated with positive movie reviews.Relying on these spurious correlations degrades the classifier’s performance when it deploys on out-of-distribution data.In this paper, we examine the implications of spurious correlations through a novel perspective called neighborhood analysis. The analysis uncovers how spurious correlations lead unrelated words to erroneously cluster together in the embedding space. Driven by the analysis, we design a metric to detect spurious tokens and also propose a family of regularization methods, NFL (doN’t Forget your Language) to mitigate spurious correlations in text classification.Experiments show that NFL can effectively prevent erroneous clusters and significantly improve the robustness of classifiers without auxiliary data. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/oscarchew/doNt-Forget-your-Language.


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Self-Augmentation Improves Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer
Fei Wang | Kuan-Hao Huang | Kai-Wei Chang | Muhao Chen
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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PIP: Parse-Instructed Prefix for Syntactically Controlled Paraphrase Generation
Yixin Wan | Kuan-Hao Huang | Kai-Wei Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Syntactically controlled paraphrase generation requires language models to generate paraphrases for sentences according to specific syntactic structures. Existing fine-tuning methods on this task is costly, as all parameters of the model need to be updated during the training process. Inspired by recent studies on parameter-efficient learning, we propose Parse-Instructed Prefix (PIP), a novel adaptation of prefix-tuning to tune large pre-trained language models on syntactically controlled paraphrase generation task in a low-data setting with significantly less training cost. We introduce two methods to instruct a model’s encoder prefix to capture syntax-related knowledge: direct initiation (PIP-Direct) and indirect optimization (PIP-Indirect). Comparing to traditional fine-tuning methods for this task, PIP is a compute-efficient alternative with 10 times less learnable parameters. Comparing to existing prefix-tuning methods, PIP excels at capturing syntax control information, achieving significantly higher performance at the same level of learnable parameter count.

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Learning Easily Updated General Purpose Text Representations with Adaptable Task-Specific Prefix
Kuan-Hao Huang | Liang Tan | Rui Hou | Sinong Wang | Amjad Almahairi | Ruty Rinott
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Many real-world applications require making multiple predictions from the same text. Fine-tuning a large pre-trained language model for each downstream task causes computational burdens in the inference time due to several times of forward passes. To amortize the computational cost, freezing the language model and building lightweight models for downstream tasks based on fixed text representations are common solutions. Accordingly, how to learn fixed but general text representations that can generalize well to unseen downstream tasks becomes a challenge. Previous works have shown that the generalizability of representations can be improved by fine-tuning the pre-trained language model with some source tasks in a multi-tasking way. In this work, we propose a prefix-based method to learn the fixed text representations with source tasks. We learn a task-specific prefix for each source task independently and combine them to get the final representations. Our experimental results show that prefix-based training performs better than multi-tasking training and can update the text representations at a smaller computational cost than multi-tasking training.

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GENEVA: Benchmarking Generalizability for Event Argument Extraction with Hundreds of Event Types and Argument Roles
Tanmay Parekh | I-Hung Hsu | Kuan-Hao Huang | Kai-Wei Chang | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent works in Event Argument Extraction (EAE) have focused on improving model generalizability to cater to new events and domains. However, standard benchmarking datasets like ACE and ERE cover less than 40 event types and 25 entity-centric argument roles. Limited diversity and coverage hinder these datasets from adequately evaluating the generalizability of EAE models. In this paper, we first contribute by creating a large and diverse EAE ontology. This ontology is created by transforming FrameNet, a comprehensive semantic role labeling (SRL) dataset for EAE, by exploiting the similarity between these two tasks. Then, exhaustive human expert annotations are collected to build the ontology, concluding with 115 events and 220 argument roles, with a significant portion of roles not being entities. We utilize this ontology to further introduce GENEVA, a diverse generalizability benchmarking dataset comprising four test suites aimed at evaluating models’ ability to handle limited data and unseen event type generalization. We benchmark six EAE models from various families. The results show that owing to non-entity argument roles, even the best-performing model can only achieve 39% F1 score, indicating how GENEVA provides new challenges for generalization in EAE. Overall, our large and diverse EAE ontology can aid in creating more comprehensive future resources, while GENEVA is a challenging benchmarking dataset encouraging further research for improving generalizability in EAE. The code and data can be found at https://github.com/PlusLabNLP/GENEVA.

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ParaAMR: A Large-Scale Syntactically Diverse Paraphrase Dataset by AMR Back-Translation
Kuan-Hao Huang | Varun Iyer | I-Hung Hsu | Anoop Kumar | Kai-Wei Chang | Aram Galstyan
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Paraphrase generation is a long-standing task in natural language processing (NLP). Supervised paraphrase generation models, which rely on human-annotated paraphrase pairs, are cost-inefficient and hard to scale up. On the other hand, automatically annotated paraphrase pairs (e.g., by machine back-translation), usually suffer from the lack of syntactic diversity – the generated paraphrase sentences are very similar to the source sentences in terms of syntax. In this work, we present ParaAMR, a large-scale syntactically diverse paraphrase dataset created by abstract meaning representation back-translation. Our quantitative analysis, qualitative examples, and human evaluation demonstrate that the paraphrases of ParaAMR are syntactically more diverse compared to existing large-scale paraphrase datasets while preserving good semantic similarity. In addition, we show that ParaAMR can be used to improve on three NLP tasks: learning sentence embeddings, syntactically controlled paraphrase generation, and data augmentation for few-shot learning. Our results thus showcase the potential of ParaAMR for improving various NLP applications.

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AMPERE: AMR-Aware Prefix for Generation-Based Event Argument Extraction Model
I-Hung Hsu | Zhiyu Xie | Kuan-Hao Huang | Prem Natarajan | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Event argument extraction (EAE) identifies event arguments and their specific roles for a given event. Recent advancement in generation-based EAE models has shown great performance and generalizability over classification-based models. However, existing generation-based EAE models mostly focus on problem re-formulation and prompt design, without incorporating additional information that has been shown to be effective for classification-based models, such as the abstract meaning representation (AMR) of the input passages. Incorporating such information into generation-based models is challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of the natural language form prevalently used in generation-based models and the structured form of AMRs. In this work, we study strategies to incorporate AMR into generation-based EAE models. We propose AMPERE, which generates AMR-aware prefixes for every layer of the generation model. Thus, the prefix introduces AMR information to the generation-based EAE model and then improves the generation. We also introduce an adjusted copy mechanism to AMPERE to help overcome potential noises brought by the AMR graph. Comprehensive experiments and analyses on ACE2005 and ERE datasets show that AMPERE can get 4% - 10% absolute F1 score improvements with reduced training data and it is in general powerful across different training sizes.

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TAGPRIME: A Unified Framework for Relational Structure Extraction
I-Hung Hsu | Kuan-Hao Huang | Shuning Zhang | Wenxin Cheng | Prem Natarajan | Kai-Wei Chang | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Many tasks in natural language processing require the extraction of relationship information for a given condition, such as event argument extraction, relation extraction, and task-oriented semantic parsing. Recent works usually propose sophisticated models for each task independently and pay less attention to the commonality of these tasks and to have a unified framework for all the tasks. In this work, we propose to take a unified view of all these tasks and introduce TAGPRIME to address relational structure extraction problems. TAGPRIME is a sequence tagging model that appends priming words about the information of the given condition (such as an event trigger) to the input text. With the self-attention mechanism in pre-trained language models, the priming words make the output contextualized representations contain more information about the given condition, and hence become more suitable for extracting specific relationships for the condition. Extensive experiments and analyses on three different tasks that cover ten datasets across five different languages demonstrate the generality and effectiveness of TAGPRIME.


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Multilingual Generative Language Models for Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Event Argument Extraction
Kuan-Hao Huang | I-Hung Hsu | Prem Natarajan | Kai-Wei Chang | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present a study on leveraging multilingual pre-trained generative language models for zero-shot cross-lingual event argument extraction (EAE). By formulating EAE as a language generation task, our method effectively encodes event structures and captures the dependencies between arguments. We design language-agnostic templates to represent the event argument structures, which are compatible with any language, hence facilitating the cross-lingual transfer. Our proposed model finetunes multilingual pre-trained generative language models to generate sentences that fill in the language-agnostic template with arguments extracted from the input passage. The model is trained on source languages and is then directly applied to target languages for event argument extraction. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the current state-of-the-art models on zero-shot cross-lingual EAE. Comprehensive studies and error analyses are presented to better understand the advantages and the current limitations of using generative language models for zero-shot cross-lingual transfer EAE.

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Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Sequence Tagging as Seq2Seq Generation for Joint Intent Classification and Slot Filling
Fei Wang | Kuan-hao Huang | Anoop Kumar | Aram Galstyan | Greg Ver steeg | Kai-wei Chang
Proceedings of the Massively Multilingual Natural Language Understanding Workshop (MMNLU-22)

The joint intent classification and slot filling task seeks to detect the intent of an utterance and extract its semantic concepts. In the zero-shot cross-lingual setting, a model is trained on a source language and then transferred to other target languages through multi-lingual representations without additional training data. While prior studies show that pre-trained multilingual sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) models can facilitate zero-shot transfer, there is little understanding on how to design the output template for the joint prediction tasks. In this paper, we examine three aspects of the output template – (1) label mapping, (2) task dependency, and (3) word order. Experiments on the MASSIVE dataset consisting of 51 languages show that our output template significantly improves the performance of pre-trained cross-lingual language models.

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Unsupervised Syntactically Controlled Paraphrase Generation with Abstract Meaning Representations
Kuan-Hao Huang | Varun Iyer | Anoop Kumar | Sriram Venkatapathy | Kai-Wei Chang | Aram Galstyan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Syntactically controlled paraphrase generation has become an emerging research direction in recent years. Most existing approaches require annotated paraphrase pairs for training and are thus costly to extend to new domains. Unsupervised approaches, on the other hand, do not need paraphrase pairs but suffer from relatively poor performance in terms of syntactic control and quality of generated paraphrases. In this paper, we demonstrate that leveraging Abstract Meaning Representations (AMR) can greatly improve the performance of unsupervised syntactically controlled paraphrase generation.Our proposed model, AMR-enhanced Paraphrase Generator (AMRPG), separately encodes the AMR graph and the constituency parse of the input sentence into two disentangled semantic and syntactic embeddings. A decoder is then learned to reconstruct the input sentence from the semantic and syntactic embeddings. Our experiments show that AMRPG generates more accurate syntactically controlled paraphrases, both quantitatively and qualitatively, compared to the existing unsupervised approaches. We also demonstrate that the paraphrases generated by AMRPG can be used for data augmentation to improve the robustness of NLP models.

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DEGREE: A Data-Efficient Generation-Based Event Extraction Model
I-Hung Hsu | Kuan-Hao Huang | Elizabeth Boschee | Scott Miller | Prem Natarajan | Kai-Wei Chang | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Event extraction requires high-quality expert human annotations, which are usually expensive. Therefore, learning a data-efficient event extraction model that can be trained with only a few labeled examples has become a crucial challenge. In this paper, we focus on low-resource end-to-end event extraction and propose DEGREE, a data-efficient model that formulates event extraction as a conditional generation problem. Given a passage and a manually designed prompt, DEGREE learns to summarize the events mentioned in the passage into a natural sentence that follows a predefined pattern. The final event predictions are then extracted from the generated sentence with a deterministic algorithm. DEGREE has three advantages to learn well with less training data. First, our designed prompts provide semantic guidance for DEGREE to leverage DEGREE and thus better capture the event arguments. Moreover, DEGREE is capable of using additional weakly-supervised information, such as the description of events encoded in the prompts. Finally, DEGREE learns triggers and arguments jointly in an end-to-end manner, which encourages the model to better utilize the shared knowledge and dependencies among them. Our experimental results demonstrate the strong performance of DEGREE for low-resource event extraction.


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Disentangling Semantics and Syntax in Sentence Embeddings with Pre-trained Language Models
James Y. Huang | Kuan-Hao Huang | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Pre-trained language models have achieved huge success on a wide range of NLP tasks. However, contextual representations from pre-trained models contain entangled semantic and syntactic information, and therefore cannot be directly used to derive useful semantic sentence embeddings for some tasks. Paraphrase pairs offer an effective way of learning the distinction between semantics and syntax, as they naturally share semantics and often vary in syntax. In this work, we present ParaBART, a semantic sentence embedding model that learns to disentangle semantics and syntax in sentence embeddings obtained by pre-trained language models. ParaBART is trained to perform syntax-guided paraphrasing, based on a source sentence that shares semantics with the target paraphrase, and a parse tree that specifies the target syntax. In this way, ParaBART learns disentangled semantic and syntactic representations from their respective inputs with separate encoders. Experiments in English show that ParaBART outperforms state-of-the-art sentence embedding models on unsupervised semantic similarity tasks. Additionally, we show that our approach can effectively remove syntactic information from semantic sentence embeddings, leading to better robustness against syntactic variation on downstream semantic tasks.

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Improving Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer Learning via Robust Training
Kuan-Hao Huang | Wasi Ahmad | Nanyun Peng | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained multilingual language encoders, such as multilingual BERT and XLM-R, show great potential for zero-shot cross-lingual transfer. However, these multilingual encoders do not precisely align words and phrases across languages. Especially, learning alignments in the multilingual embedding space usually requires sentence-level or word-level parallel corpora, which are expensive to be obtained for low-resource languages. An alternative is to make the multilingual encoders more robust; when fine-tuning the encoder using downstream task, we train the encoder to tolerate noise in the contextual embedding spaces such that even if the representations of different languages are not aligned well, the model can still achieve good performance on zero-shot cross-lingual transfer. In this work, we propose a learning strategy for training robust models by drawing connections between adversarial examples and the failure cases of zero-shot cross-lingual transfer. We adopt two widely used robust training methods, adversarial training and randomized smoothing, to train the desired robust model. The experimental results demonstrate that robust training improves zero-shot cross-lingual transfer on text classification tasks. The improvement is more significant in the generalized cross-lingual transfer setting, where the pair of input sentences belong to two different languages.

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Generating Syntactically Controlled Paraphrases without Using Annotated Parallel Pairs
Kuan-Hao Huang | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Paraphrase generation plays an essential role in natural language process (NLP), and it has many downstream applications. However, training supervised paraphrase models requires many annotated paraphrase pairs, which are usually costly to obtain. On the other hand, the paraphrases generated by existing unsupervised approaches are usually syntactically similar to the source sentences and are limited in diversity. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to generate syntactically various paraphrases without the need for annotated paraphrase pairs. We propose Syntactically controlled Paraphrase Generator (SynPG), an encoder-decoder based model that learns to disentangle the semantics and the syntax of a sentence from a collection of unannotated texts. The disentanglement enables SynPG to control the syntax of output paraphrases by manipulating the embedding in the syntactic space. Extensive experiments using automatic metrics and human evaluation show that SynPG performs better syntactic control than unsupervised baselines, while the quality of the generated paraphrases is competitive. We also demonstrate that the performance of SynPG is competitive or even better than supervised models when the unannotated data is large. Finally, we show that the syntactically controlled paraphrases generated by SynPG can be utilized for data augmentation to improve the robustness of NLP models.


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Generating Sports News from Live Commentary: A Chinese Dataset for Sports Game Summarization
Kuan-Hao Huang | Chen Li | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Sports game summarization focuses on generating news articles from live commentaries. Unlike traditional summarization tasks, the source documents and the target summaries for sports game summarization tasks are written in quite different writing styles. In addition, live commentaries usually contain many named entities, which makes summarizing sports games precisely very challenging. To deeply study this task, we present SportsSum, a Chinese sports game summarization dataset which contains 5,428 soccer games of live commentaries and the corresponding news articles. Additionally, we propose a two-step summarization model consisting of a selector and a rewriter for SportsSum. To evaluate the correctness of generated sports summaries, we design two novel score metrics: name matching score and event matching score. Experimental results show that our model performs better than other summarization baselines on ROUGE scores as well as the two designed scores.


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Examining Gender Bias in Languages with Grammatical Gender
Pei Zhou | Weijia Shi | Jieyu Zhao | Kuan-Hao Huang | Muhao Chen | Ryan Cotterell | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recent studies have shown that word embeddings exhibit gender bias inherited from the training corpora. However, most studies to date have focused on quantifying and mitigating such bias only in English. These analyses cannot be directly extended to languages that exhibit morphological agreement on gender, such as Spanish and French. In this paper, we propose new metrics for evaluating gender bias in word embeddings of these languages and further demonstrate evidence of gender bias in bilingual embeddings which align these languages with English. Finally, we extend an existing approach to mitigate gender bias in word embedding of these languages under both monolingual and bilingual settings. Experiments on modified Word Embedding Association Test, word similarity, word translation, and word pair translation tasks show that the proposed approaches can effectively reduce the gender bias while preserving the utility of the original embeddings.