Kui Wu


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Evaluating Code-Switching Translation with Large Language Models
Muhammad Huzaifah | Weihua Zheng | Nattapol Chanpaisit | Kui Wu
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Recent advances in large language models (LLMs) have shown they can match or surpass finetuned models on many natural language processing tasks. Currently, more studies are being carried out to assess whether this performance carries over across different languages. In this paper, we present a thorough evaluation of LLMs for the less well-researched code-switching translation setting, where inputs include a mixture of different languages. We benchmark the performance of six state-of-the-art LLMs across seven datasets, with GPT-4 and GPT-3.5 displaying strong ability relative to supervised translation models and commercial engines. GPT-4 was also found to be particularly robust against different code-switching conditions. Several methods to further improve code-switching translation are proposed including leveraging in-context learning and pivot translation. Through our code-switching experiments, we argue that LLMs show promising ability for cross-lingual understanding.


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Addressing the Vulnerability of NMT in Input Perturbations
Weiwen Xu | Ai Ti Aw | Yang Ding | Kui Wu | Shafiq Joty
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved significant breakthrough in performance but is known to suffer vulnerability to input perturbations. As real input noise is difficult to predict during training, robustness is a big issue for system deployment. In this paper, we improve the robustness of NMT models by reducing the effect of noisy words through a Context-Enhanced Reconstruction (CER) approach. CER trains the model to resist noise in two steps: (1) perturbation step that breaks the naturalness of input sequence with made-up words; (2) reconstruction step that defends the noise propagation by generating better and more robust contextual representation. Experimental results on Chinese-English (ZH-EN) and French-English (FR-EN) translation tasks demonstrate robustness improvement on both news and social media text. Further fine-tuning experiments on social media text show our approach can converge at a higher position and provide a better adaptation.


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Sentiment Aware Neural Machine Translation
Chenglei Si | Kui Wu | Ai Ti Aw | Min-Yen Kan
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Asian Translation

Sentiment ambiguous lexicons refer to words where their polarity depends strongly on con- text. As such, when the context is absent, their translations or their embedded sentence ends up (incorrectly) being dependent on the training data. While neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved great progress in recent years, most systems aim to produce one single correct translation for a given source sentence. We investigate the translation variation in two sentiment scenarios. We perform experiments to study the preservation of sentiment during translation with three different methods that we propose. We conducted tests with both sentiment and non-sentiment bearing contexts to examine the effectiveness of our methods. We show that NMT can generate both positive- and negative-valent translations of a source sentence, based on a given input sentiment label. Empirical evaluations show that our valence-sensitive embedding (VSE) method significantly outperforms a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) baseline, both in terms of BLEU score and ambiguous word translation accuracy in test, given non-sentiment bearing contexts.