Kyungjae Lee


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Evidentiality-aware Retrieval for Overcoming Abstractiveness in Open-Domain Question Answering
Yongho Song | Dahyun Lee | Myungha Jang | Seung-won Hwang | Kyungjae Lee | Dongha Lee | Jinyoung Yeo
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2024

The long-standing goal of dense retrievers in abtractive open-domain question answering (ODQA) tasks is to learn to capture evidence passages among relevant passages for any given query, such that the reader produce factually correct outputs from evidence passages. One of the key challenge is the insufficient amount of training data with the supervision of the answerability of the passages. Recent studies rely on iterative pipelines to annotate answerability using signals from the reader, but their high computational costs hamper practical applications. In this paper, we instead focus on a data-driven approach and propose Evidentiality-Aware Dense Passage Retrieval (EADPR), which leverages synthetic distractor samples to learn to discriminate evidence passages from distractors. We conduct extensive experiments to validate the effectiveness of our proposed method on multiple abstractive ODQA tasks.


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When to Read Documents or QA History: On Unified and Selective Open-domain QA
Kyungjae Lee | Sang-eun Han | Seung-won Hwang | Moontae Lee
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

This paper studies the problem of open-domain question answering, with the aim of answering a diverse range of questions leveraging knowledge resources. Two types of sources, QA-pair and document corpora, have been actively leveraged with the following complementary strength. The former is highly precise when the paraphrase of given question q was seen and answered during training, often posed as a retrieval problem, while the latter generalizes better for unseen questions. A natural follow-up is thus leveraging both models, while a naive pipelining or integration approaches have failed to bring additional gains over either model alone. Our distinction is interpreting the problem as calibration, which estimates the confidence of predicted answers as an indicator to decide when to use a document or QA-pair corpus. The effectiveness of our method was validated on widely adopted benchmarks such as Natural Questions and TriviaQA.

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PreWoMe: Exploiting Presuppositions as Working Memory for Long Form Question Answering
Wookje Han | Jinsol Park | Kyungjae Lee
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Information-seeking questions in long-form question answering (LFQA) often prove misleading due to ambiguity or false presupposition in the question. While many existing approaches handle misleading questions, they are tailored to limited questions, which are insufficient in a real-world setting with unpredictable input characteristics. In this work, we propose PreWoMe, a unified approach capable of handling any type of information-seeking question. The key idea of PreWoMe involves extracting presuppositions in the question and exploiting them as working memory to generate feedback and action about the question. Our experiment shows that PreWoMe is effective not only in tackling misleading questions but also in handling normal ones, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of leveraging presuppositions, feedback, and action for real-world QA settings.

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On Sample-Efficient Code Generation
Hojae Han | Yu Jin Kim | Byoungjip Kim | Youngwon Lee | Kyungjae Lee | Kyungmin Lee | Moontae Lee | Kyunghoon Bae | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

Large language models often struggle to predict runtime behavior in code generation tasks, leading to a reliance on rejection sampling (best-of-n) to generate multiple code snippets then select the best. Our distinction is reducing sampling costs, without compromising generation quality. We introduce EFFICODE, a novel framework that prioritizes sampling on test problems that models can solve. We show how EFFICODE estimates solvability to optimize computational costs during multiple sampling. Based on empirical evidence, EFFICODE consistently demonstrates reduced sampling budgets while maintaining comparable code generation performance, especially when problems are challenging. In addition, utilizing EFFICODE to rank sampled code snippets also shows its effectiveness in answer code selection for reducing temporal costs, by not requiring any execution or test case generation.

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On Complementarity Objectives for Hybrid Retrieval
Dohyeon Lee | Seung-won Hwang | Kyungjae Lee | Seungtaek Choi | Sunghyun Park
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Dense retrieval has shown promising results in various information retrieval tasks, and hybrid retrieval, combined with the strength of sparse retrieval, has also been actively studied. A key challenge in hybrid retrieval is to make sparse and dense complementary to each other. Existing models have focused on dense models to capture “residual” features neglected in the sparse models. Our key distinction is to show how this notion of residual complementarity is limited, and propose a new objective, denoted as RoC (Ratio of Complementarity), which captures a fuller notion of complementarity. We propose a two-level orthogonality designed to improve RoC, then show that the improved RoC of our model, in turn, improves the performance of hybrid retrieval. Our method outperforms all state-of-the-art methods on three representative IR benchmarks: MSMARCO-Passage, Natural Questions, and TREC Robust04, with statistical significance. Our finding is also consistent in various adversarial settings.


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Plug-and-Play Adaptation for Continuously-updated QA
Kyungjae Lee | Wookje Han | Seung-won Hwang | Hwaran Lee | Joonsuk Park | Sang-Woo Lee
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Language models (LMs) have shown great potential as implicit knowledge bases (KBs). And for their practical use, knowledge in LMs need to be updated periodically. However, existing tasks to assess LMs’ efficacy as KBs do not adequately consider multiple large-scale updates. To this end, we first propose a novel task—Continuously-updated QA (CuQA)—in which multiple large-scale updates are made to LMs, and the performance is measured with respect to the success in adding and updating knowledge while retaining existing knowledge. We then present LMs with plug-in modules that effectively handle the updates. Experiments conducted on zsRE QA and NQ datasets show that our method outperforms existing approaches. We find that our method is 4x more effective in terms of updates/forgets ratio, compared to a fine-tuning baseline.


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Query Generation for Multimodal Documents
Kyungho Kim | Kyungjae Lee | Seung-won Hwang | Young-In Song | Seungwook Lee
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

This paper studies the problem of generatinglikely queries for multimodal documents withimages. Our application scenario is enablingefficient “first-stage retrieval” of relevant doc-uments, by attaching generated queries to doc-uments before indexing. We can then indexthis expanded text to efficiently narrow downto candidate matches using inverted index, sothat expensive reranking can follow. Our eval-uation results show that our proposed multi-modal representation meaningfully improvesrelevance ranking. More importantly, ourframework can achieve the state of the art inthe first stage retrieval scenarios

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Robustifying Multi-hop QA through Pseudo-Evidentiality Training
Kyungjae Lee | Seung-won Hwang | Sang-eun Han | Dohyeon Lee
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

This paper studies the bias problem of multi-hop question answering models, of answering correctly without correct reasoning. One way to robustify these models is by supervising to not only answer right, but also with right reasoning chains. An existing direction is to annotate reasoning chains to train models, requiring expensive additional annotations. In contrast, we propose a new approach to learn evidentiality, deciding whether the answer prediction is supported by correct evidences, without such annotations. Instead, we compare counterfactual changes in answer confidence with and without evidence sentences, to generate “pseudo-evidentiality” annotations. We validate our proposed model on an original set and challenge set in HotpotQA, showing that our method is accurate and robust in multi-hop reasoning.


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Categorical Metadata Representation for Customized Text Classification
Jihyeok Kim | Reinald Kim Amplayo | Kyungjae Lee | Sua Sung | Minji Seo | Seung-won Hwang
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 7

The performance of text classification has improved tremendously using intelligently engineered neural-based models, especially those injecting categorical metadata as additional information, e.g., using user/product information for sentiment classification. This information has been used to modify parts of the model (e.g., word embeddings, attention mechanisms) such that results can be customized according to the metadata. We observe that current representation methods for categorical metadata, which are devised for human consumption, are not as effective as claimed in popular classification methods, outperformed even by simple concatenation of categorical features in the final layer of the sentence encoder. We conjecture that categorical features are harder to represent for machine use, as available context only indirectly describes the category, and even such context is often scarce (for tail category). To this end, we propose using basis vectors to effectively incorporate categorical metadata on various parts of a neural-based model. This additionally decreases the number of parameters dramatically, especially when the number of categorical features is large. Extensive experiments on various data sets with different properties are performed and show that through our method, we can represent categorical metadata more effectively to customize parts of the model, including unexplored ones, and increase the performance of the model greatly.

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Learning with Limited Data for Multilingual Reading Comprehension
Kyungjae Lee | Sunghyun Park | Hojae Han | Jinyoung Yeo | Seung-won Hwang | Juho Lee
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

This paper studies the problem of supporting question answering in a new language with limited training resources. As an extreme scenario, when no such resource exists, one can (1) transfer labels from another language, and (2) generate labels from unlabeled data, using translator and automatic labeling function respectively. However, these approaches inevitably introduce noises to the training data, due to translation or generation errors, which require a judicious use of data with varying confidence. To address this challenge, we propose a weakly-supervised framework that quantifies such noises from automatically generated labels, to deemphasize or fix noisy data in training. On reading comprehension task, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on low-resource languages with varying similarity to English, namely, Korean and French.


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Semi-supervised Training Data Generation for Multilingual Question Answering
Kyungjae Lee | Kyoungho Yoon | Sunghyun Park | Seung-won Hwang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)