In this paper we describe our current work on creating a WordNet for Latvian based on the principles of the Princeton WordNet. The chosen methodology for word sense definition and sense linking is based on corpus evidence and the existing Tezaurs.lv online dictionary, ensuring a foundation that fits the Latvian language usage and existing linguistic tradition. We cover a wide set of semantic relations, including gradation sets. Currently the dataset consists of 6432 words linked in 5528 synsets, out of which 2717 synsets are considered fully completed as they have all the outgoing semantic links annotated, annotated with corpus examples for each sense and links to the English Princeton WordNet.
LNCC is a diverse collection of Latvian language corpora representing both written and spoken language and is useful for both linguistic research and language modelling. The collection is intended to cover diverse Latvian language use cases and all the important text types and genres (e.g. news, social media, blogs, books, scientific texts, debates, essays, etc.), taking into account both quality and size aspects. To reach this objective, LNCC is a continuous multi-institutional and multi-project effort, supported by the Digital Humanities and Language Technology communities in Latvia. LNCC includes a broad range of Latvian texts from the Latvian National Library, Culture Information Systems Centre, Latvian National News Agency, Latvian Parliament, Latvian web crawl, various Latvian publishers, and from the Latvian language corpora created by Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science and its partners, including spoken language corpora. All corpora of LNCC are re-annotated with a uniform morpho-syntactic annotation scheme which enables federated search and consistent linguistics analysis in all the LNCC corpora, as well as facilitates to select and mix various corpora for pre-training large Latvian language models like BERT and GPT.
We propose an approach for generating an accurate and consistent PropBank-annotated corpus, given a FrameNet-annotated corpus which has an underlying dependency annotation layer, namely, a parallel Universal Dependencies (UD) treebank. The PropBank annotation layer of such a multi-layer corpus can be semi-automatically derived from the existing FrameNet and UD annotation layers, by providing a mapping configuration from lexical units in [a non-English language] FrameNet to [English language] PropBank predicates, and a mapping configuration from FrameNet frame elements to PropBank semantic arguments for the given pair of a FrameNet frame and a PropBank predicate. The latter mapping generally depends on the underlying UD syntactic relations. To demonstrate our approach, we use Latvian FrameNet, annotated on top of Latvian UD Treebank, for generating Latvian PropBank in compliance with the Universal Propositions approach.
We describe an extensive and versatile lexical resource for Latvian, an under-resourced Indo-European language, which we call Tezaurs (Latvian for ‘thesaurus’). It comprises a large explanatory dictionary of more than 250,000 entries that are derived from more than 280 external sources. The dictionary is enriched with phonetic, morphological, semantic and other annotations, as well as augmented by various language processing tools allowing for the generation of inflectional forms and pronunciation, for on-the-fly selection of corpus examples, for suggesting synonyms, etc. Tezaurs is available as a public and widely used web application for end-users, as an open data set for the use in language technology (LT), and as an API ― a set of web services for the integration into third-party applications. The ultimate goal of Tezaurs is to be the central computational lexicon for Latvian, bringing together all Latvian words and frequently used multi-word units and allowing for the integration of other LT resources and tools.
Frame-semantic parsing is a kind of automatic semantic role labeling performed according to the FrameNet paradigm. The paper reports a novel approach for boosting frame-semantic parsing accuracy through the use of the C5.0 decision tree classifier, a commercial version of the popular C4.5 decision tree classifier, and manual rule enhancement. Additionally, the possibility to replace C5.0 by an exhaustive search based algorithm (nicknamed C6.0) is described, leading to even higher frame-semantic parsing accuracy at the expense of slightly increased training time. The described approach is particularly efficient for languages with small FrameNet annotated corpora as it is for Latvian, which is used for illustration. Frame-semantic parsing accuracy achieved for Latvian through the C6.0 algorithm is on par with the state-of-the-art English frame-semantic parsers. The paper includes also a frame-semantic parsing use-case for extracting structured information from unstructured newswire texts, sometimes referred to as bridging of the semantic gap.
In this paper we investigate how different dependency representations of a treebank influence the accuracy of the dependency parser trained on this treebank and the impact on several parser applications: named entity recognition, coreference resolution and limited semantic role labeling. For these experiments we use Latvian Treebank, whose native annotation format is dependency based hybrid augmented with phrase-like elements. We explore different representations of coordinations, complex predicates and punctuation mark attachment. Our experiments shows that parsers trained on the variously transformed treebanks vary significantly in their accuracy, but the best-performing parser as measured by attachment score not always leads to best accuracy for an end application.