Lei Guo


2021

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OpenFraming: Open-sourced Tool for Computational Framing Analysis of Multilingual Data
Vibhu Bhatia | Vidya Prasad Akavoor | Sejin Paik | Lei Guo | Mona Jalal | Alyssa Smith | David Assefa Tofu | Edward Edberg Halim | Yimeng Sun | Margrit Betke | Prakash Ishwar | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

When journalists cover a news story, they can cover the story from multiple angles or perspectives. These perspectives are called “frames,” and usage of one frame or another may influence public perception and opinion of the issue at hand. We develop a web-based system for analyzing frames in multilingual text documents. We propose and guide users through a five-step end-to-end computational framing analysis framework grounded in media framing theory in communication research. Users can use the framework to analyze multilingual text data, starting from the exploration of frames in user’s corpora and through review of previous framing literature (step 1-3) to frame classification (step 4) and prediction (step 5). The framework combines unsupervised and supervised machine learning and leverages a state-of-the-art (SoTA) multilingual language model, which can significantly enhance frame prediction performance while requiring a considerably small sample of manual annotations. Through the interactive website, anyone can perform the proposed computational framing analysis, making advanced computational analysis available to researchers without a programming background and bridging the digital divide within the communication research discipline in particular and the academic community in general. The system is available online at http://www.openframing.org, via an API http://www.openframing.org:5000/docs/, or through our GitHub page https://github.com/vibss2397/openFraming.

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Detecting Frames in News Headlines and Lead Images in U.S. Gun Violence Coverage
Isidora Tourni | Lei Guo | Taufiq Husada Daryanto | Fabian Zhafransyah | Edward Edberg Halim | Mona Jalal | Boqi Chen | Sha Lai | Hengchang Hu | Margrit Betke | Prakash Ishwar | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

News media structure their reporting of events or issues using certain perspectives. When describing an incident involving gun violence, for example, some journalists may focus on mental health or gun regulation, while others may emphasize the discussion of gun rights. Such perspectives are called “frames” in communication research.We study, for the first time, the value of combining lead images and their contextual information with text to identify the frame of a given news article. We observe that using multiple modes of information(article- and image-derived features) improves prediction of news frames over any single mode of information when the images are relevant to the frames of the headlines.We also observe that frame image relevance is related to the ease of conveying frames via images, which we call frame concreteness. Additionally, we release the first multimodal news framing dataset related to gun violence in the U.S., curated and annotated by communication researchers. The dataset will allow researchers to further examine the use of multiple information modalities for studying media framing.

2020

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BERT Enhanced Neural Machine Translation and Sequence Tagging Model for Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis
Deng Liang | Chen Zheng | Lei Guo | Xin Cui | Xiuzhang Xiong | Hengqiao Rong | Jinpeng Dong
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

This paper presents the UNIPUS-Flaubert team’s hybrid system for the NLPTEA 2020 shared task of Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis (CGED). As a challenging NLP task, CGED has attracted increasing attention recently and has not yet fully benefited from the powerful pre-trained BERT-based models. We explore this by experimenting with three types of models. The position-tagging models and correction-tagging models are sequence tagging models fine-tuned on pre-trained BERT-based models, where the former focuses on detecting, positioning and classifying errors, and the latter aims at correcting errors. We also utilize rich representations from BERT-based models by transferring the BERT-fused models to the correction task, and further improve the performance by pre-training on a vast size of unsupervised synthetic data. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to introduce and transfer the BERT-fused NMT model and sequence tagging model into the Chinese Grammatical Error Correction field. Our work achieved the second highest F1 score at the detecting errors, the best F1 score at correction top1 subtask and the second highest F1 score at correction top3 subtask.

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Multi-Label and Multilingual News Framing Analysis
Afra Feyza Akyürek | Lei Guo | Randa Elanwar | Prakash Ishwar | Margrit Betke | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

News framing refers to the practice in which aspects of specific issues are highlighted in the news to promote a particular interpretation. In NLP, although recent works have studied framing in English news, few have studied how the analysis can be extended to other languages and in a multi-label setting. In this work, we explore multilingual transfer learning to detect multiple frames from just the news headline in a genuinely low-resource context where there are few/no frame annotations in the target language. We propose a novel method that can leverage elementary resources consisting of a dictionary and few annotations to detect frames in the target language. Our method performs comparably or better than translating the entire target language headline to the source language for which we have annotated data. This work opens up an exciting new capability of scaling up frame analysis to many languages, even those without existing translation technologies. Lastly, we apply our method to detect frames on the issue of U.S. gun violence in multiple languages and obtain exciting insights on the relationship between different frames of the same problem across different countries with different languages.

2019

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Detecting Frames in News Headlines and Its Application to Analyzing News Framing Trends Surrounding U.S. Gun Violence
Siyi Liu | Lei Guo | Kate Mays | Margrit Betke | Derry Tanti Wijaya
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Different news articles about the same topic often offer a variety of perspectives: an article written about gun violence might emphasize gun control, while another might promote 2nd Amendment rights, and yet a third might focus on mental health issues. In communication research, these different perspectives are known as “frames”, which, when used in news media will influence the opinion of their readers in multiple ways. In this paper, we present a method for effectively detecting frames in news headlines. Our training and performance evaluation is based on a new dataset of news headlines related to the issue of gun violence in the United States. This Gun Violence Frame Corpus (GVFC) was curated and annotated by journalism and communication experts. Our proposed approach sets a new state-of-the-art performance for multiclass news frame detection, significantly outperforming a recent baseline by 35.9% absolute difference in accuracy. We apply our frame detection approach in a large scale study of 88k news headlines about the coverage of gun violence in the U.S. between 2016 and 2018.