Lena Katharina Schiffer


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Tractable Parsing for CCGs of Bounded Degree
Lena Katharina Schiffer | Marco Kuhlmann | Giorgio Satta
Computational Linguistics, Volume 48, Issue 3 - September 2022

Unlike other mildly context-sensitive formalisms, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) cannot be parsed in polynomial time when the size of the grammar is taken into account. Refining this result, we show that the parsing complexity of CCG is exponential only in the maximum degree of composition. When that degree is fixed, parsing can be carried out in polynomial time. Our finding is interesting from a linguistic perspective because a bounded degree of composition has been suggested as a universal constraint on natural language grammar. Moreover, ours is the first complexity result for a version of CCG that includes substitution rules, which are used in practical grammars but have been ignored in theoretical work.


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Strong Equivalence of TAG and CCG
Lena Katharina Schiffer | Andreas Maletti
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) and combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) are two well-established mildly context-sensitive grammar formalisms that are known to have the same expressive power on strings (i.e., generate the same class of string languages). It is demonstrated that their expressive power on trees also essentially coincides. In fact, CCG without lexicon entries for the empty string and only first-order rules of degree at most 2 are sufficient for its full expressive power.