Lesly Miculicich Werlen

Also published as: Lesly Miculicich


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Transformers as Graph-to-Graph Models
James Henderson | Alireza Mohammadshahi | Andrei Coman | Lesly Miculicich
Proceedings of the Big Picture Workshop

We argue that Transformers are essentially graph-to-graph models, with sequences just being a special case. Attention weights are functionally equivalent to graph edges. Our Graph-to-Graph Transformer architecture makes this ability explicit, by inputting graph edges into the attention weight computations and predicting graph edges with attention-like functions, thereby integrating explicit graphs into the latent graphs learned by pretrained Transformers. Adding iterative graph refinement provides a joint embedding of input, output, and latent graphs, allowing non-autoregressive graph prediction to optimise the complete graph without any bespoke pipeline or decoding strategy. Empirical results show that this architecture achieves state-of-the-art accuracies for modelling a variety of linguistic structures, integrating very effectively with the latent linguistic representations learned by pretraining.


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Graph Refinement for Coreference Resolution
Lesly Miculicich | James Henderson
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

The state-of-the-art models for coreference resolution are based on independent mention pair-wise decisions. We propose a modelling approach that learns coreference at the document-level and takes global decisions. For this purpose, we model coreference links in a graph structure where the nodes are tokens in the text, and the edges represent the relationship between them. Our model predicts the graph in a non-autoregressive manner, then iteratively refines it based on previous predictions, allowing global dependencies between decisions. The experimental results show improvements over various baselines, reinforcing the hypothesis that document-level information improves conference resolution.


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Partially-supervised Mention Detection
Lesly Miculicich | James Henderson
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Models of Reference, Anaphora and Coreference

Learning to detect entity mentions without using syntactic information can be useful for integration and joint optimization with other tasks. However, it is common to have partially annotated data for this problem. Here, we investigate two approaches to deal with partial annotation of mentions: weighted loss and soft-target classification. We also propose two neural mention detection approaches: a sequence tagging, and an exhaustive search. We evaluate our methods with coreference resolution as a downstream task, using multitask learning. The results show that the recall and F1 score improve for all methods.


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Selecting, Planning, and Rewriting: A Modular Approach for Data-to-Document Generation and Translation
Lesly Miculicich | Marc Marone | Hany Hassan
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

In this paper, we report our system submissions to all 6 tracks of the WNGT 2019 shared task on Document-Level Generation and Translation. The objective is to generate a textual document from either structured data: generation task, or a document in a different language: translation task. For the translation task, we focused on adapting a large scale system trained on WMT data by fine tuning it on the RotoWire data. For the generation task, we participated with two systems based on a selection and planning model followed by (a) a simple language model generation, and (b) a GPT-2 pre-trained language model approach. The selection and planning module chooses a subset of table records in order, and the language models produce text given such a subset.


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Beyond Weight Tying: Learning Joint Input-Output Embeddings for Neural Machine Translation
Nikolaos Pappas | Lesly Miculicich | James Henderson
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

Tying the weights of the target word embeddings with the target word classifiers of neural machine translation models leads to faster training and often to better translation quality. Given the success of this parameter sharing, we investigate other forms of sharing in between no sharing and hard equality of parameters. In particular, we propose a structure-aware output layer which captures the semantic structure of the output space of words within a joint input-output embedding. The model is a generalized form of weight tying which shares parameters but allows learning a more flexible relationship with input word embeddings and allows the effective capacity of the output layer to be controlled. In addition, the model shares weights across output classifiers and translation contexts which allows it to better leverage prior knowledge about them. Our evaluation on English-to-Finnish and English-to-German datasets shows the effectiveness of the method against strong encoder-decoder baselines trained with or without weight tying.

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Document-Level Neural Machine Translation with Hierarchical Attention Networks
Lesly Miculicich | Dhananjay Ram | Nikolaos Pappas | James Henderson
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) can be improved by including document-level contextual information. For this purpose, we propose a hierarchical attention model to capture the context in a structured and dynamic manner. The model is integrated in the original NMT architecture as another level of abstraction, conditioning on the NMT model’s own previous hidden states. Experiments show that hierarchical attention significantly improves the BLEU score over a strong NMT baseline with the state-of-the-art in context-aware methods, and that both the encoder and decoder benefit from context in complementary ways.

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Self-Attentive Residual Decoder for Neural Machine Translation
Lesly Miculicich Werlen | Nikolaos Pappas | Dhananjay Ram | Andrei Popescu-Belis
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Neural sequence-to-sequence networks with attention have achieved remarkable performance for machine translation. One of the reasons for their effectiveness is their ability to capture relevant source-side contextual information at each time-step prediction through an attention mechanism. However, the target-side context is solely based on the sequence model which, in practice, is prone to a recency bias and lacks the ability to capture effectively non-sequential dependencies among words. To address this limitation, we propose a target-side-attentive residual recurrent network for decoding, where attention over previous words contributes directly to the prediction of the next word. The residual learning facilitates the flow of information from the distant past and is able to emphasize any of the previously translated words, hence it gains access to a wider context. The proposed model outperforms a neural MT baseline as well as a memory and self-attention network on three language pairs. The analysis of the attention learned by the decoder confirms that it emphasizes a wider context, and that it captures syntactic-like structures.


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Using Coreference Links to Improve Spanish-to-English Machine Translation
Lesly Miculicich Werlen | Andrei Popescu-Belis
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Coreference Resolution Beyond OntoNotes (CORBON 2017)

In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept implementation of a coreference-aware decoder for document-level machine translation. We consider that better translations should have coreference links that are closer to those in the source text, and implement this criterion in two ways. First, we define a similarity measure between source and target coreference structures, by projecting the target ones onto the source and reusing existing coreference metrics. Based on this similarity measure, we re-rank the translation hypotheses of a baseline system for each sentence. Alternatively, to address the lack of diversity of mentions in the MT hypotheses, we focus on mention pairs and integrate their coreference scores with MT ones, resulting in post-editing decisions for mentions. The experimental results for Spanish to English MT on the AnCora-ES corpus show that the second approach yields a substantial increase in the accuracy of pronoun translation, with BLEU scores remaining constant.

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Validation of an Automatic Metric for the Accuracy of Pronoun Translation (APT)
Lesly Miculicich Werlen | Andrei Popescu-Belis
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Discourse in Machine Translation

In this paper, we define and assess a reference-based metric to evaluate the accuracy of pronoun translation (APT). The metric automatically aligns a candidate and a reference translation using GIZA++ augmented with specific heuristics, and then counts the number of identical or different pronouns, with provision for legitimate variations and omitted pronouns. All counts are then combined into one score. The metric is applied to the results of seven systems (including the baseline) that participated in the DiscoMT 2015 shared task on pronoun translation from English to French. The APT metric reaches around 0.993-0.999 Pearson correlation with human judges (depending on the parameters of APT), while other automatic metrics such as BLEU, METEOR, or those specific to pronouns used at DiscoMT 2015 reach only 0.972-0.986 Pearson correlation.

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The SUMMA Platform Prototype
Renars Liepins | Ulrich Germann | Guntis Barzdins | Alexandra Birch | Steve Renals | Susanne Weber | Peggy van der Kreeft | Hervé Bourlard | João Prieto | Ondřej Klejch | Peter Bell | Alexandros Lazaridis | Alfonso Mendes | Sebastian Riedel | Mariana S. C. Almeida | Pedro Balage | Shay B. Cohen | Tomasz Dwojak | Philip N. Garner | Andreas Giefer | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Hina Imran | David Nogueira | Ahmed Ali | Sebastião Miranda | Andrei Popescu-Belis | Lesly Miculicich Werlen | Nikos Papasarantopoulos | Abiola Obamuyide | Clive Jones | Fahim Dalvi | Andreas Vlachos | Yang Wang | Sibo Tong | Rico Sennrich | Nikolaos Pappas | Shashi Narayan | Marco Damonte | Nadir Durrani | Sameer Khurana | Ahmed Abdelali | Hassan Sajjad | Stephan Vogel | David Sheppey | Chris Hernon | Jeff Mitchell
Proceedings of the Software Demonstrations of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present the first prototype of the SUMMA Platform: an integrated platform for multilingual media monitoring. The platform contains a rich suite of low-level and high-level natural language processing technologies: automatic speech recognition of broadcast media, machine translation, automated tagging and classification of named entities, semantic parsing to detect relationships between entities, and automatic construction / augmentation of factual knowledge bases. Implemented on the Docker platform, it can easily be deployed, customised, and scaled to large volumes of incoming media streams.


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Pronoun Translation and Prediction with or without Coreference Links
Ngoc Quang Luong | Lesly Miculicich Werlen | Andrei Popescu-Belis
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Discourse in Machine Translation