Topology Imbalance and Relation Inauthenticity Aware Hierarchical Graph Attention Networks for Fake News Detection
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics
Fake news detection is a challenging problem due to its tremendous real-world political and social impacts. Recent fake news detection works focus on learning news features from News Propagation Graph (NPG). However, little attention is paid to the issues of both authenticity of the relationships and topology imbalance in the structure of NPG, which trick existing methods and thus lead to incorrect prediction results. To tackle these issues, in this paper, we propose a novel Topology imbalance and Relation inauthenticity aware Hierarchical Graph Attention Networks (TR-HGAN) to identify fake news on social media. Specifically, we design a new topology imbalance smoothing strategy to measure the topology weight of each node. Besides, we adopt a hierarchical-level attention mechanism for graph convolutional learning, which can adaptively identify the authenticity of relationships by assigning appropriate weights to each of them. Experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate that TR-HGAN significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Unsupervised Neural Machine Translation with Future Rewarding
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)
In this paper, we alleviate the local optimality of back-translation by learning a policy (takes the form of an encoder-decoder and is defined by its parameters) with future rewarding under the reinforcement learning framework, which aims to optimize the global word predictions for unsupervised neural machine translation. To this end, we design a novel reward function to characterize high-quality translations from two aspects: n-gram matching and semantic adequacy. The n-gram matching is defined as an alternative for the discrete BLEU metric, and the semantic adequacy is used to measure the adequacy of conveying the meaning of the source sentence to the target. During training, our model strives for earning higher rewards by learning to produce grammatically more accurate and semantically more adequate translations. Besides, a variational inference network (VIN) is proposed to constrain the corresponding sentences in two languages have the same or similar latent semantic code. On the widely used WMT’14 English-French, WMT’16 English-German and NIST Chinese-to-English benchmarks, our models respectively obtain 27.59/27.15, 19.65/23.42 and 22.40 BLEU points without using any labeled data, demonstrating consistent improvements over previous unsupervised NMT models.