Automated essay scoring (AES) involves the prediction of a score relating to the writing quality of an essay. Most existing works in AES utilize regression objectives or ranking objectives respectively. However, the two types of methods are highly complementary. To this end, in this paper we take inspiration from contrastive learning and propose a novel unified Neural Pairwise Contrastive Regression (NPCR) model in which both objectives are optimized simultaneously as a single loss. Specifically, we first design a neural pairwise ranking model to guarantee the global ranking order in a large list of essays, and then we further extend this pairwise ranking model to predict the relative scores between an input essay and several reference essays. Additionally, a multi-sample voting strategy is employed for inference. We use Quadratic Weighted Kappa to evaluate our model on the public Automated Student Assessment Prize (ASAP) dataset, and the experimental results demonstrate that NPCR outperforms previous methods by a large margin, achieving the state-of-the-art average performance for the AES task.
While hyperbole is one of the most prevalent rhetorical devices, it is arguably one of the least studied devices in the figurative language processing community. We contribute to the study of hyperbole by (1) creating a corpus focusing on sentence-level hyperbole detection, (2) performing a statistical and manual analysis of our corpus, and (3) addressing the automatic hyperbole detection task.