Li Nguyen


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How effective is machine translation on low-resource code-switching? A case study comparing human and automatic metrics
Li Nguyen | Christopher Bryant | Oliver Mayeux | Zheng Yuan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

This paper presents an investigation into the differences between processing monolingual input and code-switching (CSW) input in the context of machine translation (MT). Specifically, we compare the performance of three MT systems (Google, mBART-50 and M2M-100-big) in terms of their ability to translate monolingual Vietnamese, a low-resource language, and Vietnamese-English CSW respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically analyse what might happen when multilingual MT systems are exposed to CSW data using both automatic and human metrics. We find that state-of-the-art neural translation systems not only achieve higher scores on automatic metrics when processing CSW input (compared to monolingual input), but also produce translations that are consistently rated as more semantically faithful by humans. We further suggest that automatic evaluation alone is insufficient for evaluating the translation of CSW input. Our findings establish a new benchmark that offers insights into the relationship between MT and CSW.


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CanVEC - the Canberra Vietnamese-English Code-switching Natural Speech Corpus
Li Nguyen | Christopher Bryant
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper introduces the Canberra Vietnamese-English Code-switching corpus (CanVEC), an original corpus of natural mixed speech that we semi-automatically annotated with language information, part of speech (POS) tags and Vietnamese translations. The corpus, which was built to inform a sociolinguistic study on language variation and code-switching, consists of 10 hours of recorded speech (87k tokens) between 45 Vietnamese-English bilinguals living in Canberra, Australia. We describe how we collected and annotated the corpus by pipelining several monolingual toolkits to considerably speed up the annotation process. We also describe how we evaluated the automatic annotations to ensure corpus reliability. We make the corpus available for research purposes.