Liane Guillou


2022

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Cross-lingual Inference with A Chinese Entailment Graph
Tianyi Li | Sabine Weber | Mohammad Javad Hosseini | Liane Guillou | Mark Steedman
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Predicate entailment detection is a crucial task for question-answering from text, where previous work has explored unsupervised learning of entailment graphs from typed open relation triples. In this paper, we present the first pipeline for building Chinese entailment graphs, which involves a novel high-recall open relation extraction (ORE) method and the first Chinese fine-grained entity typing dataset under the FIGER type ontology. Through experiments on the Levy-Holt dataset, we verify the strength of our Chinese entailment graph, and reveal the cross-lingual complementarity: on the parallel Levy-Holt dataset, an ensemble of Chinese and English entailment graphs outperforms both monolingual graphs, and raises unsupervised SOTA by 4.7 AUC points.

2021

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Modality and Negation in Event Extraction
Sander Bijl de Vroe | Liane Guillou | Miloš Stanojević | Nick McKenna | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Challenges and Applications of Automated Extraction of Socio-political Events from Text (CASE 2021)

Language provides speakers with a rich system of modality for expressing thoughts about events, without being committed to their actual occurrence. Modality is commonly used in the political news domain, where both actual and possible courses of events are discussed. NLP systems struggle with these semantic phenomena, often incorrectly extracting events which did not happen, which can lead to issues in downstream applications. We present an open-domain, lexicon-based event extraction system that captures various types of modality. This information is valuable for Question Answering, Knowledge Graph construction and Fact-checking tasks, and our evaluation shows that the system is sufficiently strong to be used in downstream applications.

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Blindness to Modality Helps Entailment Graph Mining
Liane Guillou | Sander Bijl de Vroe | Mark Johnson | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Insights from Negative Results in NLP

Understanding linguistic modality is widely seen as important for downstream tasks such as Question Answering and Knowledge Graph Population. Entailment Graph learning might also be expected to benefit from attention to modality. We build Entailment Graphs using a news corpus filtered with a modality parser, and show that stripping modal modifiers from predicates in fact increases performance. This suggests that for some tasks, the pragmatics of modal modification of predicates allows them to contribute as evidence of entailment.

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Multivalent Entailment Graphs for Question Answering
Nick McKenna | Liane Guillou | Mohammad Javad Hosseini | Sander Bijl de Vroe | Mark Johnson | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Drawing inferences between open-domain natural language predicates is a necessity for true language understanding. There has been much progress in unsupervised learning of entailment graphs for this purpose. We make three contributions: (1) we reinterpret the Distributional Inclusion Hypothesis to model entailment between predicates of different valencies, like DEFEAT(Biden, Trump) entails WIN(Biden); (2) we actualize this theory by learning unsupervised Multivalent Entailment Graphs of open-domain predicates; and (3) we demonstrate the capabilities of these graphs on a novel question answering task. We show that directional entailment is more helpful for inference than non-directional similarity on questions of fine-grained semantics. We also show that drawing on evidence across valencies answers more questions than by using only the same valency evidence.

2020

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Incorporating Temporal Information in Entailment Graph Mining
Liane Guillou | Sander Bijl de Vroe | Mohammad Javad Hosseini | Mark Johnson | Mark Steedman
Proceedings of the Graph-based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs)

We present a novel method for injecting temporality into entailment graphs to address the problem of spurious entailments, which may arise from similar but temporally distinct events involving the same pair of entities. We focus on the sports domain in which the same pairs of teams play on different occasions, with different outcomes. We present an unsupervised model that aims to learn entailments such as win/lose → play, while avoiding the pitfall of learning non-entailments such as win ̸→ lose. We evaluate our model on a manually constructed dataset, showing that incorporating time intervals and applying a temporal window around them, are effective strategies.

2018

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A Pronoun Test Suite Evaluation of the English–German MT Systems at WMT 2018
Liane Guillou | Christian Hardmeier | Ekaterina Lapshinova-Koltunski | Sharid Loáiciga
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

We evaluate the output of 16 English-to-German MT systems with respect to the translation of pronouns in the context of the WMT 2018 competition. We work with a test suite specifically designed to assess system quality in various fine-grained categories known to be problematic. The main evaluation scores come from a semi-automatic process, combining automatic reference matching with extensive manual annotation of uncertain cases. We find that current NMT systems are good at translating pronouns with intra-sentential reference, but the inter-sentential cases remain difficult. NMT systems are also good at the translation of event pronouns, unlike systems from the phrase-based SMT paradigm. No single system performs best at translating all types of anaphoric pronouns, suggesting unexplained random effects influencing the translation of pronouns with NMT.

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Automatic Reference-Based Evaluation of Pronoun Translation Misses the Point
Liane Guillou | Christian Hardmeier
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We compare the performance of the APT and AutoPRF metrics for pronoun translation against a manually annotated dataset comprising human judgements as to the correctness of translations of the PROTEST test suite. Although there is some correlation with the human judgements, a range of issues limit the performance of the automated metrics. Instead, we recommend the use of semi-automatic metrics and test suites in place of fully automatic metrics.

2017

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What is it? Disambiguating the different readings of the pronoun ‘it’
Sharid Loáiciga | Liane Guillou | Christian Hardmeier
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we address the problem of predicting one of three functions for the English pronoun ‘it’: anaphoric, event reference or pleonastic. This disambiguation is valuable in the context of machine translation and coreference resolution. We present experiments using a MAXENT classifier trained on gold-standard data and self-training experiments of an RNN trained on silver-standard data, annotated using the MAXENT classifier. Lastly, we report on an analysis of the strengths of these two models.

2016

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Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 1, Research Papers
Ondřej Bojar | Christian Buck | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Liane Guillou | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Pavel Pecina | Martin Popel | Philipp Koehn | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Matt Post | Lucia Specia | Karin Verspoor | Jörg Tiedemann | Marco Turchi
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 1, Research Papers

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Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers
Ondřej Bojar | Christian Buck | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Liane Guillou | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Pavel Pecina | Martin Popel | Philipp Koehn | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Matt Post | Lucia Specia | Karin Verspoor | Jörg Tiedemann | Marco Turchi
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Findings of the 2016 WMT Shared Task on Cross-lingual Pronoun Prediction
Liane Guillou | Christian Hardmeier | Preslav Nakov | Sara Stymne | Jörg Tiedemann | Yannick Versley | Mauro Cettolo | Bonnie Webber | Andrei Popescu-Belis
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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It-disambiguation and source-aware language models for cross-lingual pronoun prediction
Sharid Loáiciga | Liane Guillou | Christian Hardmeier
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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A Graphical Pronoun Analysis Tool for the PROTEST Pronoun Evaluation Test Suite
Christian Hardmeier | Liane Guillou
Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

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PROTEST: A Test Suite for Evaluating Pronouns in Machine Translation
Liane Guillou | Christian Hardmeier
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

We present PROTEST, a test suite for the evaluation of pronoun translation by MT systems. The test suite comprises 250 hand-selected pronoun tokens and an automatic evaluation method which compares the translations of pronouns in MT output with those in the reference translation. Pronoun translations that do not match the reference are referred for manual evaluation. PROTEST is designed to support analysis of system performance at the level of individual pronoun groups, rather than to provide a single aggregate measure over all pronouns. We wish to encourage detailed analyses to highlight issues in the handling of specific linguistic mechanisms by MT systems, thereby contributing to a better understanding of those problems involved in translating pronouns. We present two use cases for PROTEST: a) for measuring improvement/degradation of an incremental system change, and b) for comparing the performance of a group of systems whose design may be largely unrelated. Following the latter use case, we demonstrate the application of PROTEST to the evaluation of the systems submitted to the DiscoMT 2015 shared task on pronoun translation.

2015

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Analysing ParCor and its Translations by State-of-the-art SMT Systems
Liane Guillou | Bonnie Webber
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Discourse in Machine Translation

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Automatic Post-Editing for the DiscoMT Pronoun Translation Task
Liane Guillou
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Discourse in Machine Translation

2014

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ParCor 1.0: A Parallel Pronoun-Coreference Corpus to Support Statistical MT
Liane Guillou | Christian Hardmeier | Aaron Smith | Jörg Tiedemann | Bonnie Webber
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

We present ParCor, a parallel corpus of texts in which pronoun coreference ― reduced coreference in which pronouns are used as referring expressions ― has been annotated. The corpus is intended to be used both as a resource from which to learn systematic differences in pronoun use between languages and ultimately for developing and testing informed Statistical Machine Translation systems aimed at addressing the problem of pronoun coreference in translation. At present, the corpus consists of a collection of parallel English-German documents from two different text genres: TED Talks (transcribed planned speech), and EU Bookshop publications (written text). All documents in the corpus have been manually annotated with respect to the type and location of each pronoun and, where relevant, its antecedent. We provide details of the texts that we selected, the guidelines and tools used to support annotation and some corpus statistics. The texts in the corpus have already been translated into many languages, and we plan to expand the corpus into these other languages, as well as other genres, in the future.

2013

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Analysing Lexical Consistency in Translation
Liane Guillou
Proceedings of the Workshop on Discourse in Machine Translation

2012

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Improving Pronoun Translation for Statistical Machine Translation
Liane Guillou
Proceedings of the Student Research Workshop at the 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics