Liangliang Cao


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STAIR: Learning Sparse Text and Image Representation in Grounded Tokens
Chen Chen | Bowen Zhang | Liangliang Cao | Jiguang Shen | Tom Gunter | Albin Jose | Alexander Toshev | Yantao Zheng | Jonathon Shlens | Ruoming Pang | Yinfei Yang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Image and text retrieval is one of the foundational tasks in the vision and language domain with multiple real-world applications. State-of-the-art contrastive approaches, e.g. CLIP, ALIGN, represent images and texts as dense embeddings and calculate the similarity in the dense embedding space as the matching score. On the other hand, sparse semantic features like bag-of-words models are more interpretable, but believed to suffer from inferior accuracy than dense representations. In this work, we show that it is possible to build a sparse semantic representation that is as powerful as, or even better than, dense presentations. We extend the CLIP model and build a sparse text and image representation (STAIR), where the image and text are mapped to a sparse token space. Each token in the space is a (sub-)word in the vocabulary, which is not only interpretable but also easy to integrate with existing information retrieval systems. STAIR model significantly outperforms a CLIP model with +4.9% and +4.3% absolute Recall@1 improvement on COCO-5k textimage and imagetext retrieval respectively. It also achieved better performance on both of ImageNet zero-shot and linear probing compared to CLIP.


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A Large Scale Speech Sentiment Corpus
Eric Chen | Zhiyun Lu | Hao Xu | Liangliang Cao | Yu Zhang | James Fan
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present a multimodal corpus for sentiment analysis based on the existing Switchboard-1 Telephone Speech Corpus released by the Linguistic Data Consortium. This corpus extends the Switchboard-1 Telephone Speech Corpus by adding sentiment labels from 3 different human annotators for every transcript segment. Each sentiment label can be one of three options: positive, negative, and neutral. Annotators are recruited using Google Cloud’s data labeling service and the labeling task was conducted over the internet. The corpus contains a total of 49500 labeled speech segments covering 140 hours of audio. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest multimodal Corpus for sentiment analysis that includes both speech and text features.

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Zero-shot Entity Linking with Efficient Long Range Sequence Modeling
Zonghai Yao | Liangliang Cao | Huapu Pan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

This paper considers the problem of zero-shot entity linking, in which a link in the test time may not present in training. Following the prevailing BERT-based research efforts, we find a simple yet effective way is to expand the long-range sequence modeling. Unlike many previous methods, our method does not require expensive pre-training of BERT with long position embeddings. Instead, we propose an efficient position embeddings initialization method called Embedding-repeat, which initializes larger position embeddings based on BERT-Base. On the zero-shot entity linking dataset, our method improves the STOA from 76.06% to 79.08%, and for its long data, the corresponding improvement is from 74.57% to 82.14%. Our experiments suggest the effectiveness of long-range sequence modeling without retraining the BERT model.