Libo Qin


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CGIM: A Cycle Guided Interactive Learning Model for Consistency Identification in Task-oriented Dialogue
Libo Qin | Qiguang Chen | Tianbao Xie | Qian Liu | Shijue Huang | Wanxiang Che | Zhou Yu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Consistency identification in task-oriented dialog (CI-ToD) usually consists of three subtasks, aiming to identify inconsistency between current system response and current user response, dialog history and the corresponding knowledge base. This work aims to solve CI-ToD task by introducing an explicit interaction paradigm, Cycle Guided Interactive learning Model (CGIM), which achieves to make information exchange explicitly from all the three tasks. Specifically, CGIM relies on two core insights, referred to as guided multi-head attention module and cycle interactive mechanism, that collaborate from each other. On the one hand, each two tasks are linked with the guided multi-head attention module, aiming to explicitly model the interaction across two related tasks. On the other hand, we further introduce cycle interactive mechanism that focuses on facilitating model to exchange information among the three correlated sub-tasks via a cycle interaction manner. Experimental results on CI-ToD benchmark show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance, pushing the overall score to 56.3% (5.0% point absolute improvement). In addition, we find that CGIM is robust to the initial task flow order.

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UniDU: Towards A Unified Generative Dialogue Understanding Framework
Zhi Chen | Lu Chen | Bei Chen | Libo Qin | Yuncong Liu | Su Zhu | Jian-Guang Lou | Kai Yu
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

With the development of pre-trained language models, remarkable success has been witnessed in dialogue understanding (DU). However, current DU approaches usually employ independent models for each distinct DU task, without considering shared knowledge across different DU tasks. In this paper, we propose a unified generative dialogue understanding framework, named UniDU, to achieve effective information exchange across diverse DU tasks. Here, we reformulate all DU tasks into a unified prompt-based generative model paradigm. More importantly, a novel model-agnostic multi-task training strategy (MATS) is introduced to dynamically adapt the weights of diverse tasks for best knowlege sharing during training, based on the nature and available data of each task. Experiments on ten DU datasets covering five fundamental DU tasks show that the proposed UniDU framework largely outperforms task-specific well-designed methods on all tasks. MATS also reveals the knowledge sharing structure of these tasks. Finally, UniDU obtains promising performance on unseen dialogue domain, showing great potential of generalization.

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GL-CLeF: A Global–Local Contrastive Learning Framework for Cross-lingual Spoken Language Understanding
Libo Qin | Qiguang Chen | Tianbao Xie | Qixin Li | Jian-Guang Lou | Wanxiang Che | Min-Yen Kan
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Due to high data demands of current methods, attention to zero-shot cross-lingual spoken language understanding (SLU) has grown, as such approaches greatly reduce human annotation effort. However, existing models solely rely on shared parameters, which can only perform implicit alignment across languages. We present Global-Local Contrastive Learning Framework (GL-CLeF) to address this shortcoming. Specifically, we employ contrastive learning, leveraging bilingual dictionaries to construct multilingual views of the same utterance, then encourage their representations to be more similar than negative example pairs, which achieves to explicitly align representations of similar sentences across languages. In addition, a key step in GL-CLeF is a proposed Local and Global component, which achieves a fine-grained cross-lingual transfer (i.e., sentence-level Local intent transfer, token-level Local slot transfer, and semantic-level Global transfer across intent and slot). Experiments on MultiATIS++ show that GL-CLeF achieves the best performance and successfully pulls representations of similar sentences across languages closer.


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Don’t be Contradicted with Anything! CI-ToD: Towards Benchmarking Consistency for Task-oriented Dialogue System
Libo Qin | Tianbao Xie | Shijue Huang | Qiguang Chen | Xiao Xu | Wanxiang Che
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Consistency Identification has obtained remarkable success on open-domain dialogue, which can be used for preventing inconsistent response generation. However, in contrast to the rapid development in open-domain dialogue, few efforts have been made to the task-oriented dialogue direction. In this paper, we argue that consistency problem is more urgent in task-oriented domain. To facilitate the research, we introduce CI-ToD, a novel dataset for Consistency Identification in Task-oriented Dialog system. In addition, we not only annotate the single label to enable the model to judge whether the system response is contradictory, but also provide more fine-grained labels (i.e., Dialogue History Inconsistency, User Query Inconsistency and Knowledge Base Inconsistency) to encourage model to know what inconsistent sources lead to it. Empirical results show that state-of-the-art methods only achieve 51.3%, which is far behind the human performance of 93.2%, indicating that there is ample room for improving consistency identification ability. Finally, we conduct exhaustive experiments and qualitative analysis to comprehend key challenges and provide guidance for future directions. All datasets and models are publicly available at

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N-LTP: An Open-source Neural Language Technology Platform for Chinese
Wanxiang Che | Yunlong Feng | Libo Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We introduce N-LTP, an open-source neural language technology platform supporting six fundamental Chinese NLP tasks: lexical analysis (Chinese word segmentation, part-of-speech tagging, and named entity recognition), syntactic parsing (dependency parsing), and semantic parsing (semantic dependency parsing and semantic role labeling). Unlike the existing state-of-the-art toolkits, such as Stanza, that adopt an independent model for each task, N-LTP adopts the multi-task framework by using a shared pre-trained model, which has the advantage of capturing the shared knowledge across relevant Chinese tasks. In addition, a knowledge distillation method (Clark et al., 2019) where the single-task model teaches the multi-task model is further introduced to encourage the multi-task model to surpass its single-task teacher. Finally, we provide a collection of easy-to-use APIs and a visualization tool to make users to use and view the processing results more easily and directly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first toolkit to support six Chinese NLP fundamental tasks. Source code, documentation, and pre-trained models are available at

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GL-GIN: Fast and Accurate Non-Autoregressive Model for Joint Multiple Intent Detection and Slot Filling
Libo Qin | Fuxuan Wei | Tianbao Xie | Xiao Xu | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Multi-intent SLU can handle multiple intents in an utterance, which has attracted increasing attention. However, the state-of-the-art joint models heavily rely on autoregressive approaches, resulting in two issues: slow inference speed and information leakage. In this paper, we explore a non-autoregressive model for joint multiple intent detection and slot filling, achieving more fast and accurate. Specifically, we propose a Global-Locally Graph Interaction Network (GL-GIN) where a local slot-aware graph interaction layer is proposed to model slot dependency for alleviating uncoordinated slots problem while a global intent-slot graph interaction layer is introduced to model the interaction between multiple intents and all slots in the utterance. Experimental results on two public datasets show that our framework achieves state-of-the-art performance while being 11.5 times faster.

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Language Model as an Annotator: Exploring DialoGPT for Dialogue Summarization
Xiachong Feng | Xiaocheng Feng | Libo Qin | Bing Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Current dialogue summarization systems usually encode the text with a number of general semantic features (e.g., keywords and topics) to gain more powerful dialogue modeling capabilities. However, these features are obtained via open-domain toolkits that are dialog-agnostic or heavily relied on human annotations. In this paper, we show how DialoGPT, a pre-trained model for conversational response generation, can be developed as an unsupervised dialogue annotator, which takes advantage of dialogue background knowledge encoded in DialoGPT. We apply DialoGPT to label three types of features on two dialogue summarization datasets, SAMSum and AMI, and employ pre-trained and non pre-trained models as our summarizers. Experimental results show that our proposed method can obtain remarkable improvements on both datasets and achieves new state-of-the-art performance on the SAMSum dataset.


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Slot-consistent NLG for Task-oriented Dialogue Systems with Iterative Rectification Network
Yangming Li | Kaisheng Yao | Libo Qin | Wanxiang Che | Xiaolong Li | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Data-driven approaches using neural networks have achieved promising performances in natural language generation (NLG). However, neural generators are prone to make mistakes, e.g., neglecting an input slot value and generating a redundant slot value. Prior works refer this to hallucination phenomenon. In this paper, we study slot consistency for building reliable NLG systems with all slot values of input dialogue act (DA) properly generated in output sentences. We propose Iterative Rectification Network (IRN) for improving general NLG systems to produce both correct and fluent responses. It applies a bootstrapping algorithm to sample training candidates and uses reinforcement learning to incorporate discrete reward related to slot inconsistency into training. Comprehensive studies have been conducted on multiple benchmark datasets, showing that the proposed methods have significantly reduced the slot error rate (ERR) for all strong baselines. Human evaluations also have confirmed its effectiveness.

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Dynamic Fusion Network for Multi-Domain End-to-end Task-Oriented Dialog
Libo Qin | Xiao Xu | Wanxiang Che | Yue Zhang | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recent studies have shown remarkable success in end-to-end task-oriented dialog system. However, most neural models rely on large training data, which are only available for a certain number of task domains, such as navigation and scheduling. This makes it difficult to scalable for a new domain with limited labeled data. However, there has been relatively little research on how to effectively use data from all domains to improve the performance of each domain and also unseen domains. To this end, we investigate methods that can make explicit use of domain knowledge and introduce a shared-private network to learn shared and specific knowledge. In addition, we propose a novel Dynamic Fusion Network (DF-Net) which automatically exploit the relevance between the target domain and each domain. Results show that our models outperforms existing methods on multi-domain dialogue, giving the state-of-the-art in the literature. Besides, with little training data, we show its transferability by outperforming prior best model by 13.9% on average.

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AGIF: An Adaptive Graph-Interactive Framework for Joint Multiple Intent Detection and Slot Filling
Libo Qin | Xiao Xu | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In real-world scenarios, users usually have multiple intents in the same utterance. Unfortunately, most spoken language understanding (SLU) models either mainly focused on the single intent scenario, or simply incorporated an overall intent context vector for all tokens, ignoring the fine-grained multiple intents information integration for token-level slot prediction. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Graph-Interactive Framework (AGIF) for joint multiple intent detection and slot filling, where we introduce an intent-slot graph interaction layer to model the strong correlation between the slot and intents. Such an interaction layer is applied to each token adaptively, which has the advantage to automatically extract the relevant intents information, making a fine-grained intent information integration for the token-level slot prediction. Experimental results on three multi-intent datasets show that our framework obtains substantial improvement and achieves the state-of-the-art performance. In addition, our framework achieves new state-of-the-art performance on two single-intent datasets.


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Entity-Consistent End-to-end Task-Oriented Dialogue System with KB Retriever
Libo Qin | Yijia Liu | Wanxiang Che | Haoyang Wen | Yangming Li | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Querying the knowledge base (KB) has long been a challenge in the end-to-end task-oriented dialogue system. Previous sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) dialogue generation work treats the KB query as an attention over the entire KB, without the guarantee that the generated entities are consistent with each other. In this paper, we propose a novel framework which queries the KB in two steps to improve the consistency of generated entities. In the first step, inspired by the observation that a response can usually be supported by a single KB row, we introduce a KB retrieval component which explicitly returns the most relevant KB row given a dialogue history. The retrieval result is further used to filter the irrelevant entities in a Seq2Seq response generation model to improve the consistency among the output entities. In the second step, we further perform the attention mechanism to address the most correlated KB column. Two methods are proposed to make the training feasible without labeled retrieval data, which include distant supervision and Gumbel-Softmax technique. Experiments on two publicly available task oriented dialog datasets show the effectiveness of our model by outperforming the baseline systems and producing entity-consistent responses.

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A Stack-Propagation Framework with Token-Level Intent Detection for Spoken Language Understanding
Libo Qin | Wanxiang Che | Yangming Li | Haoyang Wen | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Intent detection and slot filling are two main tasks for building a spoken language understanding (SLU) system. The two tasks are closely tied and the slots often highly depend on the intent. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for SLU to better incorporate the intent information, which further guiding the slot filling. In our framework, we adopt a joint model with Stack-Propagation which can directly use the intent information as input for slot filling, thus to capture the intent semantic knowledge. In addition, to further alleviate the error propagation, we perform the token-level intent detection for the Stack-Propagation framework. Experiments on two publicly datasets show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art performance and outperforms other previous methods by a large margin. Finally, we use the Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformer (BERT) model in our framework, which further boost our performance in SLU task.


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Sequence-to-Sequence Learning for Task-oriented Dialogue with Dialogue State Representation
Haoyang Wen | Yijia Liu | Wanxiang Che | Libo Qin | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Classic pipeline models for task-oriented dialogue system require explicit modeling the dialogue states and hand-crafted action spaces to query a domain-specific knowledge base. Conversely, sequence-to-sequence models learn to map dialogue history to the response in current turn without explicit knowledge base querying. In this work, we propose a novel framework that leverages the advantages of classic pipeline and sequence-to-sequence models. Our framework models a dialogue state as a fixed-size distributed representation and use this representation to query a knowledge base via an attention mechanism. Experiment on Stanford Multi-turn Multi-domain Task-oriented Dialogue Dataset shows that our framework significantly outperforms other sequence-to-sequence based baseline models on both automatic and human evaluation.