Lin Li


pdf bib
Descriptive Prompt Paraphrasing for Target-Oriented Multimodal Sentiment Classification
Dan Liu | Lin Li | Xiaohui Tao | Jian Cui | Qing Xie
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Target-Oriented Multimodal Sentiment Classification (TMSC) aims to perform sentiment polarity on a target jointly considering its corresponding multiple modalities including text, image, and others. Current researches mainly work on either of two types of targets in a decentralized manner. One type is entity, such as a person name, a location name, etc. and the other is aspect, such as ‘food’, ‘service’, etc. We believe that this target type based division in task modelling is not necessary because the sentiment polarity of the specific target is not governed by its type but its context. For this reason, we propose a unified model for target-oriented multimodal sentiment classification, so called UnifiedTMSC. It is prompt-based language modelling and performs well on four datasets spanning the above two target types. Specifically, we design descriptive prompt paraphrasing to reformulate TMSC task via (1) task paraphrasing, which obtains paraphrased prompts based on the task description through a paraphrasing rule, and (2) image prefix tuning, which optimizes a small continuous image vector throughout the multimodal representation space of text and images. Conducted on two entity-level multimodal datasets: Twitter-2015 and Twitter-2017, and two aspect-level multimodal datasets: Multi-ZOL and MASAD, the experimental results show the effectiveness of our UnifiedTMSC.

pdf bib
TRIGO: Benchmarking Formal Mathematical Proof Reduction for Generative Language Models
Jing Xiong | Jianhao Shen | Ye Yuan | Haiming Wang | Yichun Yin | Zhengying Liu | Lin Li | Zhijiang Guo | Qingxing Cao | Yinya Huang | Chuanyang Zheng | Xiaodan Liang | Ming Zhang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Automated theorem proving (ATP) has become an appealing domain for exploring the reasoning ability of the recent successful generative language models. However, current ATP benchmarks are mainly focus on symbolic inference, but rarely involve the understanding of complex number combination reasoning. In this work, we propose TRIGO, an ATP benchmark that not only requires a model to reduce a trigonometric expression with step-by-step proof but also evaluates a generative LM’s reasoning ability on formulas and capability to manipulate, group, and factor number terms. We gather trigonometric expressions and their reduced forms from web, annotate the simplification process manually, and translate it into the “Lean” formal language system. We then automatically generate additional examples from the annotated samples to expand the dataset. Furthermore, we also create three automatically generated training and testing datasets of varying difficulty and distributions. Our extensive experiments show our proposed TRIGO poses a new challenge for advanced generative LM’s including GPT-4 which is pre-trained on a considerable amount of open-source formal theorem-proving language data, and provide a new tool to study the generative LM’s ability on both formal and mathematical reasoning.

pdf bib
DT-Solver: Automated Theorem Proving with Dynamic-Tree Sampling Guided by Proof-level Value Function
Haiming Wang | Ye Yuan | Zhengying Liu | Jianhao Shen | Yichun Yin | Jing Xiong | Enze Xie | Han Shi | Yujun Li | Lin Li | Jian Yin | Zhenguo Li | Xiaodan Liang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent advances in neural theorem-proving resort to large language models and tree searches. When proving a theorem, a language model advises single-step actions based on the current proving state and the tree search finds a sequence of correct steps using actions given by the language model. However, prior works often conduct constant computation efforts for each proving state while ignoring that the hard states often need more exploration than easy states. Moreover, they evaluate and guide the proof search solely depending on the current proof state instead of considering the whole proof trajectory as human reasoning does. Here, to accommodate general theorems, we propose a novel Dynamic-Tree Driven Theorem Solver (DT-Solver) by guiding the search procedure with state confidence and proof-level values. Specifically, DT-Solver introduces a dynamic-tree Monte-Carlo search algorithm, which dynamically allocates computing budgets for different state confidences, guided by a new proof-level value function to discover proof states that require substantial exploration. Experiments on two popular theorem-proving datasets, PISA and Mathlib, show significant performance gains by our DT-Solver over the state-of-the-art approaches, with a 6.65% improvement on average in terms of success rate. And especially under low computing resource settings (11.03% improvement on average).


pdf bib
Code Generation From Flowcharts with Texts: A Benchmark Dataset and An Approach
Zejie Liu | Xiaoyu Hu | Deyu Zhou | Lin Li | Xu Zhang | Yanzheng Xiang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Currently, researchers focus on generating codes from the requirement documents. However, current approaches still perform poorly on some requirements needing complex problem-solving skills. In reality, to tackle such complex requirements, instead of directly translating requirement documents into codes, software engineers write codes via unified modeling language diagrams, such as flowcharts, an intermediate tool to analyze and visualize the system. Therefore, we propose a new source code generation task, that is, to generate source code from flowcharts with texts. We manually construct a benchmark dataset containing 320 flowcharts with their corresponding source codes. Obviously, it is not straightforward to employ the current approaches for the new source code generation task since (1) the flowchart is a graph that contains various structures, including loop, selection, and others which is different from texts; (2) the connections between nodes in the flowchart are abundant and diverse which need to be carefully handled. To solve the above problems, we propose a two-stage code generation model. In the first stage, a structure recognition algorithm is employed to transform the flowchart into pseudo-code containing the structural conventions of a typical programming language such as while, if. In the second stage, a code generation model is employed to convert the pseudo-code into code. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve some improvement over the baselines.

pdf bib
标签先验知识增强的方面类别情感分析方法研究(Aspect-Category based Sentiment Analysis Enhanced by Label Prior Knowledge)
Renwei Wu (吴任伟) | Lin Li (李琳) | Zheng He (何铮) | Jingling Yuan (袁景凌)
Proceedings of the 21st Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

“当前,基于方面类别的情感分析研究旨在将方面类别检测和面向类别的情感分类两个任务协同进行。然而,现有研究未能有效关注情感数据集中存在的噪声标签,影响了情感分析的质量。基于此,本文提出一种标签先验知识增强的方面类别情感分析方法(AP-LPK)。首先本文为面向类别的情感分类构建了自回归提示训练方式,可以激发预训练语言模型的潜力。同时该方式通过自回归生成标签词,以期获得比非自回归更好的语义一致性。其次,每个类别的标签分布作为标签先验知识引入,并通过伯努利分布对其进行进一步精炼,以用于减轻噪声标签的干扰。然后,AP-LPK将上述两个步骤分别得到的情感类别分布进行融合,以获得最终的情感类别预测概率。最后,本文提出的AP-LPK方法在五个数据集上进行评估,包括SemEval 2015和2016的四个基准数据集和AI Challenger 2018的餐厅领域大规模数据集。实验结果表明,本文提出的方法在F1指标上优于现有方法。”


pdf bib
Generate & Rank: A Multi-task Framework for Math Word Problems
Jianhao Shen | Yichun Yin | Lin Li | Lifeng Shang | Xin Jiang | Ming Zhang | Qun Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Math word problem (MWP) is a challenging and critical task in natural language processing. Many recent studies formalize MWP as a generation task and have adopted sequence-to-sequence models to transform problem descriptions to mathematical expressions. However, mathematical expressions are prone to minor mistakes while the generation objective does not explicitly handle such mistakes. To address this limitation, we devise a new ranking task for MWP and propose Generate & Rank, a multi-task framework based on a generative pre-trained language model. By joint training with generation and ranking, the model learns from its own mistakes and is able to distinguish between correct and incorrect expressions. Meanwhile, we perform tree-based disturbance specially designed for MWP and an online update to boost the ranker. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method on the benchmark and the results show that our method consistently outperforms baselines in all datasets. Particularly, in the classical Math23k, our method is 7% (78.4% to 85.4%) higher than the state-of-the-art. Code could be found at

pdf bib
CREAD: Combined Resolution of Ellipses and Anaphora in Dialogues
Bo-Hsiang Tseng | Shruti Bhargava | Jiarui Lu | Joel Ruben Antony Moniz | Dhivya Piraviperumal | Lin Li | Hong Yu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Anaphora and ellipses are two common phenomena in dialogues. Without resolving referring expressions and information omission, dialogue systems may fail to generate consistent and coherent responses. Traditionally, anaphora is resolved by coreference resolution and ellipses by query rewrite. In this work, we propose a novel joint learning framework of modeling coreference resolution and query rewriting for complex, multi-turn dialogue understanding. Given an ongoing dialogue between a user and a dialogue assistant, for the user query, our joint learning model first predicts coreference links between the query and the dialogue context, and then generates a self-contained rewritten user query. To evaluate our model, we annotate a dialogue based coreference resolution dataset, MuDoCo, with rewritten queries. Results show that the performance of query rewrite can be substantially boosted (+2.3% F1) with the aid of coreference modeling. Furthermore, our joint model outperforms the state-of-the-art coreference resolution model (+2% F1) on this dataset.

pdf bib
Noise Robust Named Entity Understanding for Voice Assistants
Deepak Muralidharan | Joel Ruben Antony Moniz | Sida Gao | Xiao Yang | Justine Kao | Stephen Pulman | Atish Kothari | Ray Shen | Yinying Pan | Vivek Kaul | Mubarak Seyed Ibrahim | Gang Xiang | Nan Dun | Yidan Zhou | Andy O | Yuan Zhang | Pooja Chitkara | Xuan Wang | Alkesh Patel | Kushal Tayal | Roger Zheng | Peter Grasch | Jason D Williams | Lin Li
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Entity Linking (EL) play an essential role in voice assistant interaction, but are challenging due to the special difficulties associated with spoken user queries. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture that jointly solves the NER and EL tasks by combining them in a joint reranking module. We show that our proposed framework improves NER accuracy by up to 3.13% and EL accuracy by up to 3.6% in F1 score. The features used also lead to better accuracies in other natural language understanding tasks, such as domain classification and semantic parsing.


pdf bib
Conversational Semantic Parsing for Dialog State Tracking
Jianpeng Cheng | Devang Agrawal | Héctor Martínez Alonso | Shruti Bhargava | Joris Driesen | Federico Flego | Dain Kaplan | Dimitri Kartsaklis | Lin Li | Dhivya Piraviperumal | Jason D. Williams | Hong Yu | Diarmuid Ó Séaghdha | Anders Johannsen
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We consider a new perspective on dialog state tracking (DST), the task of estimating a user’s goal through the course of a dialog. By formulating DST as a semantic parsing task over hierarchical representations, we can incorporate semantic compositionality, cross-domain knowledge sharing and co-reference. We present TreeDST, a dataset of 27k conversations annotated with tree-structured dialog states and system acts. We describe an encoder-decoder framework for DST with hierarchical representations, which leads to ~20% improvement over state-of-the-art DST approaches that operate on a flat meaning space of slot-value pairs.

pdf bib
Gradations of Error Severity in Automatic Image Descriptions
Emiel van Miltenburg | Wei-Ting Lu | Emiel Krahmer | Albert Gatt | Guanyi Chen | Lin Li | Kees van Deemter
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

Earlier research has shown that evaluation metrics based on textual similarity (e.g., BLEU, CIDEr, Meteor) do not correlate well with human evaluation scores for automatically generated text. We carried out an experiment with Chinese speakers, where we systematically manipulated image descriptions to contain different kinds of errors. Because our manipulated descriptions form minimal pairs with the reference descriptions, we are able to assess the impact of different kinds of errors on the perceived quality of the descriptions. Our results show that different kinds of errors elicit significantly different evaluation scores, even though all erroneous descriptions differ in only one character from the reference descriptions. Evaluation metrics based solely on textual similarity are unable to capture these differences, which (at least partially) explains their poor correlation with human judgments. Our work provides the foundations for future work, where we aim to understand why different errors are seen as more or less severe.

pdf bib
Chinese Long and Short Form Choice Exploiting Neural Network Language Modeling Approaches
Lin Li | Kees van Deemter | Denis Paperno
Proceedings of the 19th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

This paper presents our work in long and short form choice, a significant question of lexical choice, which plays an important role in many Natural Language Understanding tasks. Long and short form sharing at least one identical word meaning but with different number of syllables is a highly frequent linguistic phenomenon in Chinese like 老虎-虎(laohu-hu, tiger)

pdf bib
Manifold Learning-based Word Representation Refinement Incorporating Global and Local Information
Wenyu Zhao | Dong Zhou | Lin Li | Jinjun Chen
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recent studies show that word embedding models often underestimate similarities between similar words and overestimate similarities between distant words. This results in word similarity results obtained from embedding models inconsistent with human judgment. Manifold learning-based methods are widely utilized to refine word representations by re-embedding word vectors from the original embedding space to a new refined semantic space. These methods mainly focus on preserving local geometry information through performing weighted locally linear combination between words and their neighbors twice. However, these reconstruction weights are easily influenced by different selections of neighboring words and the whole combination process is time-consuming. In this paper, we propose two novel word representation refinement methods leveraging isometry feature mapping and local tangent space respectively. Unlike previous methods, our first method corrects pre-trained word embeddings by preserving global geometry information of all words instead of local geometry information between words and their neighbors. Our second method refines word representations by aligning original and re-fined embedding spaces based on local tangent space instead of performing weighted locally linear combination twice. Experimental results obtained from standard semantic relatedness and semantic similarity tasks show that our methods outperform various state-of-the-art baselines for word representation refinement.


pdf bib
Choosing between Long and Short Word Forms in Mandarin
Lin Li | Kees van Deemter | Denis Paperno | Jingyu Fan
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

Between 80% and 90% of all Chinese words have long and short form such as 老虎/虎 (lao-hu/hu , tiger) (Duanmu:2013). Consequently, the choice between long and short forms is a key problem for lexical choice across NLP and NLG. Following an earlier work on abbreviations in English (Mahowald et al, 2013), we bring a probabilistic perspective to these questions, using both a behavioral and a corpus-based approach. We hypothesized that there is a higher probability of choosing short form in supportive context than in neutral context in Mandarin. Consistent with our prediction, our findings revealed that predictability of contexts makes effect on speakers’ long and short form choice.