Linhan Zhang


2022

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MDERank: A Masked Document Embedding Rank Approach for Unsupervised Keyphrase Extraction
Linhan Zhang | Qian Chen | Wen Wang | Chong Deng | ShiLiang Zhang | Bing Li | Wei Wang | Xin Cao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Keyphrase extraction (KPE) automatically extracts phrases in a document that provide a concise summary of the core content, which benefits downstream information retrieval and NLP tasks. Previous state-of-the-art methods select candidate keyphrases based on the similarity between learned representations of the candidates and the document. They suffer performance degradation on long documents due to discrepancy between sequence lengths which causes mismatch between representations of keyphrase candidates and the document. In this work, we propose a novel unsupervised embedding-based KPE approach, Masked Document Embedding Rank (MDERank), to address this problem by leveraging a mask strategy and ranking candidates by the similarity between embeddings of the source document and the masked document. We further develop a KPE-oriented BERT (KPEBERT) model by proposing a novel self-supervised contrastive learning method, which is more compatible to MDERank than vanilla BERT. Comprehensive evaluations on six KPE benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed MDERank outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised KPE approach by average 1.80 F1@15 improvement. MDERank further benefits from KPEBERT and overall achieves average 3.53 F1@15 improvement over SIFRank.

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Improved Universal Sentence Embeddings with Prompt-based Contrastive Learning and Energy-based Learning
Yuxin Jiang | Linhan Zhang | Wei Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Contrastive learning has been demonstrated to be effective in enhancing pre-trained language models (PLMs) to derive superior universal sentence embeddings. However, existing contrastive methods still have two limitations. Firstly, previous works may acquire poor performance under domain shift settings, thus hindering the application of sentence representations in practice. We attribute this low performance to the over-parameterization of PLMs with millions of parameters. To alleviate it, we propose PromCSE (Prompt-based Contrastive Learning for Sentence Embeddings), which only trains small-scale Soft Prompt (i.e., a set of trainable vectors) while keeping PLMs fixed. Secondly, the commonly used NT-Xent loss function of contrastive learning does not fully exploit hard negatives in supervised learning settings. To this end, we propose to integrate an Energy-based Hinge loss to enhance the pairwise discriminative power, inspired by the connection between the NT-Xent loss and the Energy-based Learning paradigm. Empirical results on seven standard semantic textual similarity (STS) tasks and a domain-shifted STS task both show the effectiveness of our method compared with the current state-of-the-art sentence embedding models.