Linjie Li


pdf bib
An Empirical Study of Multimodal Model Merging
Yi-Lin Sung | Linjie Li | Kevin Lin | Zhe Gan | Mohit Bansal | Lijuan Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Model merging (e.g., via interpolation or task arithmetic) fuses multiple models trained on different tasks to generate a multi-task solution. The technique has been proven successful in previous studies, where the models are trained on similar tasks and with the same initialization. In this paper, we expand on this concept to a multimodal setup by merging transformers trained on different modalities. Furthermore, we conduct our study for a novel goal where we can merge vision, language, and cross-modal transformers of a modality-specific architecture to create a parameter-efficient modality-agnostic architecture. Through comprehensive experiments, we systematically investigate the key factors impacting model performance after merging, including initialization, merging mechanisms, and model architectures. We also propose two metrics that assess the distance between weights to be merged and can serve as an indicator of the merging outcomes. Our analysis leads to an effective training recipe for matching the performance of the modality-agnostic baseline (i.e., pre-trained from scratch) via model merging. Our method also outperforms naive merging significantly on various tasks, with improvements of 3% on VQA, 7% on COCO retrieval, 25% on NLVR2, 14% on Flickr30k and 3% on ADE20k.

pdf bib
NUWA-XL: Diffusion over Diffusion for eXtremely Long Video Generation
Shengming Yin | Chenfei Wu | Huan Yang | Jianfeng Wang | Xiaodong Wang | Minheng Ni | Zhengyuan Yang | Linjie Li | Shuguang Liu | Fan Yang | Jianlong Fu | Ming Gong | Lijuan Wang | Zicheng Liu | Houqiang Li | Nan Duan
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we propose NUWA-XL, a novel Diffusion over Diffusion architecture for eXtremely Long video generation. Most current work generates long videos segment by segment sequentially, which normally leads to the gap between training on short videos and inferring long videos, and the sequential generation is inefficient. Instead, our approach adopts a “coarse-to-fine” process, in which the video can be generated in parallel at the same granularity. A global diffusion model is applied to generate the keyframes across the entire time range, and then local diffusion models recursively fill in the content between nearby frames. This simple yet effective strategy allows us to directly train on long videos (3376 frames) to reduce the training-inference gap and makes it possible to generate all segments in parallel. To evaluate our model, we build FlintstonesHD dataset, a new benchmark for long video generation. Experiments show that our model not only generates high-quality long videos with both global and local coherence, but also decreases the average inference time from 7.55min to 26s (by 94.26%) at the same hardware setting when generating 1024 frames. The homepage link is [NUWA-XL](


pdf bib
LightningDOT: Pre-training Visual-Semantic Embeddings for Real-Time Image-Text Retrieval
Siqi Sun | Yen-Chun Chen | Linjie Li | Shuohang Wang | Yuwei Fang | Jingjing Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Multimodal pre-training has propelled great advancement in vision-and-language research. These large-scale pre-trained models, although successful, fatefully suffer from slow inference speed due to enormous computational cost mainly from cross-modal attention in Transformer architecture. When applied to real-life applications, such latency and computation demand severely deter the practical use of pre-trained models. In this paper, we study Image-text retrieval (ITR), the most mature scenario of V+L application, which has been widely studied even prior to the emergence of recent pre-trained models. We propose a simple yet highly effective approach, LightningDOT that accelerates the inference time of ITR by thousands of times, without sacrificing accuracy. LightningDOT removes the time-consuming cross-modal attention by extracting pre-cached feature indexes offline, and employing instant dot-product matching online, which significantly speeds up retrieval process. In fact, our LightningDOT achieves superior performance across mainstream ITR benchmarks such as Flickr30k and COCO datasets, outperforming existing pre-trained models that consume 1000 times magnitude of computational hours using the same features.


pdf bib
HERO: Hierarchical Encoder for Video+Language Omni-representation Pre-training
Linjie Li | Yen-Chun Chen | Yu Cheng | Zhe Gan | Licheng Yu | Jingjing Liu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We present HERO, a novel framework for large-scale video+language omni-representation learning. HERO encodes multimodal inputs in a hierarchical structure, where local context of a video frame is captured by a Cross-modal Transformer via multimodal fusion, and global video context is captured by a Temporal Transformer. In addition to standard Masked Language Modeling (MLM) and Masked Frame Modeling (MFM) objectives, we design two new pre-training tasks: (i) Video-Subtitle Matching (VSM), where the model predicts both global and local temporal alignment; and (ii) Frame Order Modeling (FOM), where the model predicts the right order of shuffled video frames. HERO is jointly trained on HowTo100M and large-scale TV datasets to gain deep understanding of complex social dynamics with multi-character interactions. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that HERO achieves new state of the art on multiple benchmarks over Text-based Video/Video-moment Retrieval, Video Question Answering (QA), Video-and-language Inference and Video Captioning tasks across different domains. We also introduce two new challenging benchmarks How2QA and How2R for Video QA and Retrieval, collected from diverse video content over multimodalities.


pdf bib
Multi-step Reasoning via Recurrent Dual Attention for Visual Dialog
Zhe Gan | Yu Cheng | Ahmed Kholy | Linjie Li | Jingjing Liu | Jianfeng Gao
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper presents a new model for visual dialog, Recurrent Dual Attention Network (ReDAN), using multi-step reasoning to answer a series of questions about an image. In each question-answering turn of a dialog, ReDAN infers the answer progressively through multiple reasoning steps. In each step of the reasoning process, the semantic representation of the question is updated based on the image and the previous dialog history, and the recurrently-refined representation is used for further reasoning in the subsequent step. On the VisDial v1.0 dataset, the proposed ReDAN model achieves a new state-of-the-art of 64.47% NDCG score. Visualization on the reasoning process further demonstrates that ReDAN can locate context-relevant visual and textual clues via iterative refinement, which can lead to the correct answer step-by-step.