Liping Jing


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A Survey on Recent Advances in Keyphrase Extraction from Pre-trained Language Models
Mingyang Song | Yi Feng | Liping Jing
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Keyphrase Extraction (KE) is a critical component in Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems for selecting a set of phrases from the document that could summarize the important information discussed in the document. Typically, a keyphrase extraction system can significantly accelerate the speed of information retrieval and help people get first-hand information from a long document quickly and accurately. Specifically, keyphrases are capable of providing semantic metadata characterizing documents and producing an overview of the content of a document. In this paper, we introduce keyphrase extraction, present a review of the recent studies based on pre-trained language models, offer interesting insights on the different approaches, highlight open issues, and give a comparative experimental study of popular supervised as well as unsupervised techniques on several datasets. To encourage more instantiations, we release the related files mentioned in this paper.

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Improving Embedding-based Unsupervised Keyphrase Extraction by Incorporating Structural Information
Mingyang Song | Huafeng Liu | Yi Feng | Liping Jing
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Keyphrase extraction aims to extract a set of phrases with the central idea of the source document. In a structured document, there are certain locations (e.g., the title or the first sentence) where a keyphrase is most likely to appear. However, when extracting keyphrases from the document, most existing embedding-based unsupervised keyphrase extraction models ignore the indicative role of the highlights in certain locations, leading to wrong keyphrases extraction. In this paper, we propose a new Highlight-Guided Unsupervised Keyphrase Extraction model (HGUKE) to address the above issue. Specifically, HGUKE first models the phrase-document relevance via the highlights of the documents. Next, HGUKE calculates the cross-phrase relevance between all candidate phrases. Finally, HGUKE aggregates the above two relevance as the importance score of each candidate phrase to rank and extract keyphrases. The experimental results on three benchmarks demonstrate that HGUKE outperforms the state-of-the-art unsupervised keyphrase extraction baselines.

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Unsupervised Keyphrase Extraction by Learning Neural Keyphrase Set Function
Mingyang Song | Haiyun Jiang | Lemao Liu | Shuming Shi | Liping Jing
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

We create a paradigm shift concerning building unsupervised keyphrase extraction systems in this paper. Instead of modeling the relevance between an individual candidate phrase and the document as in the commonly used framework, we formulate the unsupervised keyphrase extraction task as a document-set matching problem from a set-wise perspective, in which the document and the candidate set are globally matched in the semantic space to particularly take into account the interactions among all candidate phrases. Since it is intractable to exactly extract the keyphrase set by the matching function during the inference, we propose an approximate approach, which obtains the candidate subsets via a set extractor agent learned by reinforcement learning. Exhaustive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model, which outperforms the recent state-of-the-art unsupervised keyphrase extraction baselines by a large margin.


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Hyperbolic Relevance Matching for Neural Keyphrase Extraction
Mingyang Song | Yi Feng | Liping Jing
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Keyphrase extraction is a fundamental task in natural language processing that aims to extract a set of phrases with important information from a source document. Identifying important keyphrases is the central component of keyphrase extraction, and its main challenge is learning to represent information comprehensively and discriminate importance accurately. In this paper, to address the above issues, we design a new hyperbolic matching model (HyperMatch) to explore keyphrase extraction in hyperbolic space. Concretely, to represent information comprehensively, HyperMatch first takes advantage of the hidden representations in the middle layers of RoBERTa and integrates them as the word embeddings via an adaptive mixing layer to capture the hierarchical syntactic and semantic structures. Then, considering the latent structure information hidden in natural languages, HyperMatch embeds candidate phrases and documents in the same hyperbolic space via a hyperbolic phrase encoder and a hyperbolic document encoder. To discriminate importance accurately, HyperMatch estimates the importance of each candidate phrase by explicitly modeling the phrase-document relevance via the Poincaré distance and optimizes the whole model by minimizing the hyperbolic margin-based triplet loss. Extensive experiments are conducted on six benchmark datasets and demonstrate that HyperMatch outperforms the recent state-of-the-art baselines.

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Utilizing BERT Intermediate Layers for Unsupervised Keyphrase Extraction
Mingyang Song | Yi Feng | Liping Jing
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Natural Language and Speech Processing (ICNLSP 2022)


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StereoRel: Relational Triple Extraction from a Stereoscopic Perspective
Xuetao Tian | Liping Jing | Lu He | Feng Liu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Relational triple extraction is critical to understanding massive text corpora and constructing large-scale knowledge graph, which has attracted increasing research interest. However, existing studies still face some challenging issues, including information loss, error propagation and ignoring the interaction between entity and relation. To intuitively explore the above issues and address them, in this paper, we provide a revealing insight into relational triple extraction from a stereoscopic perspective, which rationalizes the occurrence of these issues and exposes the shortcomings of existing methods. Further, a novel model is proposed for relational triple extraction, which maps relational triples to a three-dimension (3-D) space and leverages three decoders to extract them, aimed at simultaneously handling the above issues. A series of experiments are conducted on five public datasets, demonstrating that the proposed model outperforms the recent advanced baselines.

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Importance Estimation from Multiple Perspectives for Keyphrase Extraction
Mingyang Song | Liping Jing | Lin Xiao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Keyphrase extraction is a fundamental task in Natural Language Processing, which usually contains two main parts: candidate keyphrase extraction and keyphrase importance estimation. From the view of human understanding documents, we typically measure the importance of phrase according to its syntactic accuracy, information saliency, and concept consistency simultaneously. However, most existing keyphrase extraction approaches only focus on the part of them, which leads to biased results. In this paper, we propose a new approach to estimate the importance of keyphrase from multiple perspectives (called as KIEMP) and further improve the performance of keyphrase extraction. Specifically, KIEMP estimates the importance of phrase with three modules: a chunking module to measure its syntactic accuracy, a ranking module to check its information saliency, and a matching module to judge the concept (i.e., topic) consistency between phrase and the whole document. These three modules are seamlessly jointed together via an end-to-end multi-task learning model, which is helpful for three parts to enhance each other and balance the effects of three perspectives. Experimental results on six benchmark datasets show that KIEMP outperforms the existing state-of-the-art keyphrase extraction approaches in most cases.


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Hyperbolic Capsule Networks for Multi-Label Classification
Boli Chen | Xin Huang | Lin Xiao | Liping Jing
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Although deep neural networks are effective at extracting high-level features, classification methods usually encode an input into a vector representation via simple feature aggregation operations (e.g. pooling). Such operations limit the performance. For instance, a multi-label document may contain several concepts. In this case, one vector can not sufficiently capture its salient and discriminative content. Thus, we propose Hyperbolic Capsule Networks (HyperCaps) for Multi-Label Classification (MLC), which have two merits. First, hyperbolic capsules are designed to capture fine-grained document information for each label, which has the ability to characterize complicated structures among labels and documents. Second, Hyperbolic Dynamic Routing (HDR) is introduced to aggregate hyperbolic capsules in a label-aware manner, so that the label-level discriminative information can be preserved along the depth of neural networks. To efficiently handle large-scale MLC datasets, we additionally present a new routing method to adaptively adjust the capsule number during routing. Extensive experiments are conducted on four benchmark datasets. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, HyperCaps significantly improves the performance of MLC especially on tail labels.


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Label-Specific Document Representation for Multi-Label Text Classification
Lin Xiao | Xin Huang | Boli Chen | Liping Jing
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Multi-label text classification (MLTC) aims to tag most relevant labels for the given document. In this paper, we propose a Label-Specific Attention Network (LSAN) to learn a label-specific document representation. LSAN takes advantage of label semantic information to determine the semantic connection between labels and document for constructing label-specific document representation. Meanwhile, the self-attention mechanism is adopted to identify the label-specific document representation from document content information. In order to seamlessly integrate the above two parts, an adaptive fusion strategy is proposed, which can effectively output the comprehensive label-specific document representation to build multi-label text classifier. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that LSAN consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on four different datasets, especially on the prediction of low-frequency labels. The code and hyper-parameter settings are released to facilitate other researchers.