Long Bai


2023

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Semantic Structure Enhanced Event Causality Identification
Zhilei Hu | Zixuan Li | Xiaolong Jin | Long Bai | Saiping Guan | Jiafeng Guo | Xueqi Cheng
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Event Causality Identification (ECI) aims to identify causal relations between events in unstructured texts. This is a very challenging task, because causal relations are usually expressed by implicit associations between events. Existing methods usually capture such associations by directly modeling the texts with pre-trained language models, which underestimate two kinds of semantic structures vital to the ECI task, namely, event-centric structure and event-associated structure. The former includes important semantic elements related to the events to describe them more precisely, while the latter contains semantic paths between two events to provide possible supports for ECI. In this paper, we study the implicit associations between events by modeling the above explicit semantic structures, and propose a Semantic Structure Integration model (SemSIn).It utilizes a GNN-based event aggregator to integrate the event-centric structure information, and employs an LSTM-based path aggregator to capture the event-associated structure information between two events. Experimental results on three widely used datasets show that SemSIn achieves significant improvements over baseline methods.

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Temporal Knowledge Graph Reasoning Based on N-tuple Modeling
Zhongni Hou | Xiaolong Jin | Zixuan Li | Long Bai | Saiping Guan | Yutao Zeng | Jiafeng Guo | Xueqi Cheng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Reasoning over Temporal Knowledge Graphs (TKGs) that predicts temporal facts (e.g., events) in the future is crucial for many applications. The temporal facts in existing TKGs only contain their core entities (i.e., the entities playing core roles therein) and formulate them as quadruples, i.e., (subject entity, predicate, object entity, timestamp). This formulation oversimplifies temporal facts and inevitably causes information loss. Therefore, we propose to describe a temporal fact more accurately as an n-tuple, containing not only its predicate and core entities, but also its auxiliary entities, as well as the roles of all entities. By so doing, TKGs are augmented to N-tuple Temporal Knowledge Graphs (N-TKGs). To conduct reasoning over N-TKGs, we further propose N-tuple Evolutional Network (NE-Net). It recurrently learns the evolutional representations of entities and predicates in temporal facts at different timestamps in the history via modeling the relations among those entities and predicates. Based on the learned representations, reasoning tasks at future timestamps can be realized via task-specific decoders. Experiment results on two newly built datasets demonstrate the superiority of N-TKG and the effectiveness of NE-Net.

2022

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Meta-CQG: A Meta-Learning Framework for Complex Question Generation over Knowledge Bases
Kun Zhang | Yunqi Qiu | Yuanzhuo Wang | Long Bai | Wei Li | Xuhui Jiang | Huawei Shen | Xueqi Cheng
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Complex question generation over knowledge bases (KB) aims to generate natural language questions involving multiple KB relations or functional constraints. Existing methods train one encoder-decoder-based model to fit all questions. However, such a one-size-fits-all strategy may not perform well since complex questions exhibit an uneven distribution in many dimensions, such as question types, involved KB relations, and query structures, resulting in insufficient learning for long-tailed samples under different dimensions. To address this problem, we propose a meta-learning framework for complex question generation. The meta-trained generator can acquire universal and transferable meta-knowledge and quickly adapt to long-tailed samples through a few most related training samples. To retrieve similar samples for each input query, we design a self-supervised graph retriever to learn distributed representations for samples, and contrastive learning is leveraged to improve the learned representations. We conduct experiments on both WebQuestionsSP and ComplexWebQuestion, and results on long-tailed samples of different dimensions have been significantly improved, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

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Complex Evolutional Pattern Learning for Temporal Knowledge Graph Reasoning
Zixuan Li | Saiping Guan | Xiaolong Jin | Weihua Peng | Yajuan Lyu | Yong Zhu | Long Bai | Wei Li | Jiafeng Guo | Xueqi Cheng
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

A Temporal Knowledge Graph (TKG) is a sequence of KGs corresponding to different timestamps. TKG reasoning aims to predict potential facts in the future given the historical KG sequences. One key of this task is to mine and understand evolutional patterns of facts from these sequences. The evolutional patterns are complex in two aspects, length-diversity and time-variability. Existing models for TKG reasoning focus on modeling fact sequences of a fixed length, which cannot discover complex evolutional patterns that vary in length. Furthermore, these models are all trained offline, which cannot well adapt to the changes of evolutional patterns from then on. Thus, we propose a new model, called Complex Evolutional Network (CEN), which uses a length-aware Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to handle evolutional patterns of different lengths via an easy-to-difficult curriculum learning strategy. Besides, we propose to learn the model under the online setting so that it can adapt to the changes of evolutional patterns over time. Extensive experiments demonstrate that CEN obtains substantial performance improvement under both the traditional offline and the proposed online settings.

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Knowledge-Enhanced Self-Supervised Prototypical Network for Few-Shot Event Detection
Kailin Zhao | Xiaolong Jin | Long Bai | Jiafeng Guo | Xueqi Cheng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Prototypical network based joint methods have attracted much attention in few-shot event detection, which carry out event detection in a unified sequence tagging framework. However, these methods suffer from the inaccurate prototype representation problem, due to two main reasons: the number of instances for calculating prototypes is limited; And, they do not well capture the relationships among event prototypes. To deal with this problem, we propose a Knowledge-Enhanced self-supervised Prototypical Network, called KE-PN, for few-shot event detection. KE-PN adopts hybrid rules, which can automatically align event types to an external knowledge base, i.e., FrameNet, to obtain more instances. It proposes a self-supervised learning method to filter out noisy data from enhanced instances. KE-PN is further equipped with an auxiliary event type relationship classification module, which injects the relationship information into representations of event prototypes. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets, i.e., FewEvent, MAVEN, and ACE2005 demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of KE-PN.

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HiSMatch: Historical Structure Matching based Temporal Knowledge Graph Reasoning
Zixuan Li | Zhongni Hou | Saiping Guan | Xiaolong Jin | Weihua Peng | Long Bai | Yajuan Lyu | Wei Li | Jiafeng Guo | Xueqi Cheng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

A Temporal Knowledge Graph (TKG) is a sequence of KGs with respective timestamps, which adopts quadruples in the form of (subject, relation, object, timestamp) to describe dynamic facts. TKG reasoning has facilitated many real-world applications via answering such queries as (query entity, query relation, ?, future timestamp) about future. This is actually a matching task between a query and candidate entities based on their historical structures, which reflect behavioral trends of the entities at different timestamps. In addition, recent KGs provide background knowledge of all the entities, which is also helpful for the matching. Thus, in this paper, we propose the Historical Structure Matching (HiSMatch) model. It applies two structure encoders to capture the semantic information contained in the historical structures of the query and candidate entities. Besides, it adopts another encoder to integrate the background knowledge into the model. TKG reasoning experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate the significant improvement of the proposed HiSMatch model, with up to 5.6% performance improvement in MRR, compared to the state-of-the-art baselines.

2021

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Integrating Deep Event-Level and Script-Level Information for Script Event Prediction
Long Bai | Saiping Guan | Jiafeng Guo | Zixuan Li | Xiaolong Jin | Xueqi Cheng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Scripts are structured sequences of events together with the participants, which are extracted from the texts. Script event prediction aims to predict the subsequent event given the historical events in the script. Two kinds of information facilitate this task, namely, the event-level information and the script-level information. At the event level, existing studies view an event as a verb with its participants, while neglecting other useful properties, such as the state of the participants. At the script level, most existing studies only consider a single event sequence corresponding to one common protagonist. In this paper, we propose a Transformer-based model, called MCPredictor, which integrates deep event-level and script-level information for script event prediction. At the event level, MCPredictor utilizes the rich information in the text to obtain more comprehensive event semantic representations. At the script-level, it considers multiple event sequences corresponding to different participants of the subsequent event. The experimental results on the widely-used New York Times corpus demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed model.

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Rule-Aware Reinforcement Learning for Knowledge Graph Reasoning
Zhongni Hou | Xiaolong Jin | Zixuan Li | Long Bai
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021