Long Zhou


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SpeechT5: Unified-Modal Encoder-Decoder Pre-Training for Spoken Language Processing
Junyi Ao | Rui Wang | Long Zhou | Chengyi Wang | Shuo Ren | Yu Wu | Shujie Liu | Tom Ko | Qing Li | Yu Zhang | Zhihua Wei | Yao Qian | Jinyu Li | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Motivated by the success of T5 (Text-To-Text Transfer Transformer) in pre-trained natural language processing models, we propose a unified-modal SpeechT5 framework that explores the encoder-decoder pre-training for self-supervised speech/text representation learning. The SpeechT5 framework consists of a shared encoder-decoder network and six modal-specific (speech/text) pre/post-nets. After preprocessing the input speech/text through the pre-nets, the shared encoder-decoder network models the sequence-to-sequence transformation, and then the post-nets generate the output in the speech/text modality based on the output of the decoder. Leveraging large-scale unlabeled speech and text data, we pre-train SpeechT5 to learn a unified-modal representation, hoping to improve the modeling capability for both speech and text. To align the textual and speech information into this unified semantic space, we propose a cross-modal vector quantization approach that randomly mixes up speech/text states with latent units as the interface between encoder and decoder. Extensive evaluations show the superiority of the proposed SpeechT5 framework on a wide variety of spoken language processing tasks, including automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, voice conversion, speech enhancement, and speaker identification.

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SpeechUT: Bridging Speech and Text with Hidden-Unit for Encoder-Decoder Based Speech-Text Pre-training
Ziqiang Zhang | Long Zhou | Junyi Ao | Shujie Liu | Lirong Dai | Jinyu Li | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The rapid development of single-modal pre-training has prompted researchers to pay more attention to cross-modal pre-training methods. In this paper, we propose a unified-modal speech-unit-text pre-training model, SpeechUT, to connect the representations of a speech encoder and a text decoder with a shared unit encoder. Leveraging hidden-unit as an interface to align speech and text, we can decompose the speech-to-text model into a speech-to-unit model and a unit-to-text model, which can be jointly pre-trained with unpaired speech and text data respectively. Our proposed SpeechUT is fine-tuned and evaluated on automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech translation (ST) tasks. Experimental results show that SpeechUT gets substantial improvements over strong baselines, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on both the LibriSpeech ASR and MuST-C ST tasks. To better understand the proposed SpeechUT, detailed analyses are conducted. The code and pre-trained models are available at https://aka.ms/SpeechUT.


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Jointly Learning to Repair Code and Generate Commit Message
Jiaqi Bai | Long Zhou | Ambrosio Blanco | Shujie Liu | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou | Zhoujun Li
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We propose a novel task of jointly repairing program codes and generating commit messages. Code repair and commit message generation are two essential and related tasks for software development. However, existing work usually performs the two tasks independently. We construct a multilingual triple dataset including buggy code, fixed code, and commit messages for this novel task. We first introduce a cascaded method with two models, one is to generate the fixed code first, and the other generates the commit message based on the fixed and original codes. We enhance the cascaded method with different training approaches, including the teacher-student method, the multi-task method, and the back-translation method. To deal with the error propagation problem of the cascaded method, we also propose a joint model that can both repair the program code and generate the commit message in a unified framework. Massive experiments on our constructed buggy-fixed-commit dataset reflect the challenge of this task and that the enhanced cascaded model and the proposed joint model significantly outperform baselines in both quality of code and commit messages.

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SemFace: Pre-training Encoder and Decoder with a Semantic Interface for Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Ren | Long Zhou | Shujie Liu | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou | Shuai Ma
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

While pre-training techniques are working very well in natural language processing, how to pre-train a decoder and effectively use it for neural machine translation (NMT) still remains a tricky issue. The main reason is that the cross-attention module between the encoder and decoder cannot be pre-trained, and the combined encoder-decoder model cannot work well in the fine-tuning stage because the inputs of the decoder cross-attention come from unknown encoder outputs. In this paper, we propose a better pre-training method for NMT by defining a semantic interface (SemFace) between the pre-trained encoder and the pre-trained decoder. Specifically, we propose two types of semantic interfaces, including CL-SemFace which regards cross-lingual embeddings as an interface, and VQ-SemFace which employs vector quantized embeddings to constrain the encoder outputs and decoder inputs in the same language-independent space. We conduct massive experiments on six supervised translation pairs and three unsupervised pairs. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed SemFace can effectively connect the pre-trained encoder and decoder, and achieves significant improvement by 3.7 and 1.5 BLEU points on the two tasks respectively compared with previous pre-training-based NMT models.

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Grammar-Based Patches Generation for Automated Program Repair
Yu Tang | Long Zhou | Ambrosio Blanco | Shujie Liu | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou | Muyun Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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CASIA’s System for IWSLT 2020 Open Domain Translation
Qian Wang | Yuchen Liu | Cong Ma | Yu Lu | Yining Wang | Long Zhou | Yang Zhao | Jiajun Zhang | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation

This paper describes the CASIA’s system for the IWSLT 2020 open domain translation task. This year we participate in both Chinese→Japanese and Japanese→Chinese translation tasks. Our system is neural machine translation system based on Transformer model. We augment the training data with knowledge distillation and back translation to improve the translation performance. Domain data classification and weighted domain model ensemble are introduced to generate the final translation result. We compare and analyze the performance on development data with different model settings and different data processing techniques.

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Improving Autoregressive NMT with Non-Autoregressive Model
Long Zhou | Jiajun Zhang | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Automatic Simultaneous Translation

Autoregressive neural machine translation (NMT) models are often used to teach non-autoregressive models via knowledge distillation. However, there are few studies on improving the quality of autoregressive translation (AT) using non-autoregressive translation (NAT). In this work, we propose a novel Encoder-NAD-AD framework for NMT, aiming at boosting AT with global information produced by NAT model. Specifically, under the semantic guidance of source-side context captured by the encoder, the non-autoregressive decoder (NAD) first learns to generate target-side hidden state sequence in parallel. Then the autoregressive decoder (AD) performs translation from left to right, conditioned on source-side and target-side hidden states. Since AD has global information generated by low-latency NAD, it is more likely to produce a better translation with less time delay. Experiments on WMT14 En-De, WMT16 En-Ro, and IWSLT14 De-En translation tasks demonstrate that our framework achieves significant improvements with only 8% speed degeneration over the autoregressive NMT.


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Synchronous Bidirectional Neural Machine Translation
Long Zhou | Jiajun Zhang | Chengqing Zong
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 7

Existing approaches to neural machine translation (NMT) generate the target language sequence token-by-token from left to right. However, this kind of unidirectional decoding framework cannot make full use of the target-side future contexts which can be produced in a right-to-left decoding direction, and thus suffers from the issue of unbalanced outputs. In this paper, we introduce a synchronous bidirectional–neural machine translation (SB-NMT) that predicts its outputs using left-to-right and right-to-left decoding simultaneously and interactively, in order to leverage both of the history and future information at the same time. Specifically, we first propose a new algorithm that enables synchronous bidirectional decoding in a single model. Then, we present an interactive decoding model in which left-to-right (right-to-left) generation does not only depend on its previously generated outputs, but also relies on future contexts predicted by right-to-left (left-to-right) decoding. We extensively evaluate the proposed SB-NMT model on large-scale NIST Chinese–English, WMT14 English–German, and WMT18 Russian–English translation tasks. Experimental results demonstrate that our model achieves significant improvements over the strong Transformer model by 3.92, 1.49, and 1.04 BLEU points, respectively, and obtains the state-of-the-art performance on Chinese–English and English–German translation tasks.

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A Compact and Language-Sensitive Multilingual Translation Method
Yining Wang | Long Zhou | Jiajun Zhang | Feifei Zhai | Jingfang Xu | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Multilingual neural machine translation (Multi-NMT) with one encoder-decoder model has made remarkable progress due to its simple deployment. However, this multilingual translation paradigm does not make full use of language commonality and parameter sharing between encoder and decoder. Furthermore, this kind of paradigm cannot outperform the individual models trained on bilingual corpus in most cases. In this paper, we propose a compact and language-sensitive method for multilingual translation. To maximize parameter sharing, we first present a universal representor to replace both encoder and decoder models. To make the representor sensitive for specific languages, we further introduce language-sensitive embedding, attention, and discriminator with the ability to enhance model performance. We verify our methods on various translation scenarios, including one-to-many, many-to-many and zero-shot. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed methods remarkably outperform strong standard multilingual translation systems on WMT and IWSLT datasets. Moreover, we find that our model is especially helpful in low-resource and zero-shot translation scenarios.

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Synchronously Generating Two Languages with Interactive Decoding
Yining Wang | Jiajun Zhang | Long Zhou | Yuchen Liu | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In this paper, we introduce a novel interactive approach to translate a source language into two different languages simultaneously and interactively. Specifically, the generation of one language relies on not only previously generated outputs by itself, but also the outputs predicted in the other language. Experimental results on IWSLT and WMT datasets demonstrate that our method can obtain significant improvements over both conventional Neural Machine Translation (NMT) model and multilingual NMT model.


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Neural System Combination for Machine Translation
Long Zhou | Wenpeng Hu | Jiajun Zhang | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Neural machine translation (NMT) becomes a new approach to machine translation and generates much more fluent results compared to statistical machine translation (SMT). However, SMT is usually better than NMT in translation adequacy. It is therefore a promising direction to combine the advantages of both NMT and SMT. In this paper, we propose a neural system combination framework leveraging multi-source NMT, which takes as input the outputs of NMT and SMT systems and produces the final translation. Extensive experiments on the Chinese-to-English translation task show that our model archives significant improvement by 5.3 BLEU points over the best single system output and 3.4 BLEU points over the state-of-the-art traditional system combination methods.


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An End-to-End Chinese Discourse Parser with Adaptation to Explicit and Non-explicit Relation Recognition
Xiaomian Kang | Haoran Li | Long Zhou | Jiajun Zhang | Chengqing Zong
Proceedings of the CoNLL-16 shared task