Lorenzo Bertolini


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Automatic Annotation of Dream Report’s Emotional Content with Large Language Models
Lorenzo Bertolini | Valentina Elce | Adriana Michalak | Hanna-Sophia Widhoelzl | Giulio Bernardi | Julie Weeds
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology (CLPsych 2024)

In the field of dream research, the study of dream content typically relies on the analysis of verbal reports provided by dreamers upon awakening from their sleep. This task is classically performed through manual scoring provided by trained annotators, at a great time expense. While a consistent body of work suggests that natural language processing (NLP) tools can support the automatic analysis of dream reports, proposed methods lacked the ability to reason over a report’s full context and required extensive data pre-processing. Furthermore, in most cases, these methods were not validated against standard manual scoring approaches. In this work, we address these limitations by adopting large language models (LLMs) to study and replicate the manual annotation of dream reports, using a mixture of off-the-shelf and bespoke approaches, with a focus on references to reports’ emotions. Our results show that the off-the-shelf method achieves a low performance probably in light of inherent linguistic differences between reports collected in different (groups of) individuals. On the other hand, the proposed bespoke text classification method achieves a high performance, which is robust against potential biases. Overall, these observations indicate that our approach could find application in the analysis of large dream datasets and may favour reproducibility and comparability of results across studies.


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Towards Unsupervised Compositional Entailment with Multi-Graph Embedding Models
Lorenzo Bertolini | Julie Weeds | David Weir
Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computational Semantics

Compositionality and inference are essential features of human language, and should hence be simultaneously accessible to a model of meaning. Despite being theory-grounded, distributional models can only be directly tested on compositionality, usually through similarity judgements, while testing for inference requires external resources. Recent work has shown that knowledge graph embeddings (KGE) architectures can be used to train distributional models capable of learning syntax-aware compositional representations, by training on syntactic graphs. We propose to expand such work with Multi-Graphs embedding (MuG) models, a new set of models learning from syntactic and knowledge-graphs. Using a phrase-level inference task, we show how MuGs can simultaneously handle syntax-aware composition and inference, and remain competitive distributional models with respect to lexical and compositional similarity.


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Testing Large Language Models on Compositionality and Inference with Phrase-Level Adjective-Noun Entailment
Lorenzo Bertolini | Julie Weeds | David Weir
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Previous work has demonstrated that pre-trained large language models (LLM) acquire knowledge during pre-training which enables reasoning over relationships between words (e.g, hyponymy) and more complex inferences over larger units of meaning such as sentences. Here, we investigate whether lexical entailment (LE, i.e. hyponymy or the is a relation between words) can be generalised in a compositional manner. Accordingly, we introduce PLANE (Phrase-Level Adjective-Noun Entailment), a new benchmark to test models on fine-grained compositional entailment using adjective-noun phrases. Our experiments show that knowledge extracted via In–Context and transfer learning is not enough to solve PLANE. However, a LLM trained on PLANE can generalise well to out–of–distribution sets, since the required knowledge can be stored in the representations of subwords (SW) tokens.


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Data Augmentation for Hypernymy Detection
Thomas Kober | Julie Weeds | Lorenzo Bertolini | David Weir
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

The automatic detection of hypernymy relationships represents a challenging problem in NLP. The successful application of state-of-the-art supervised approaches using distributed representations has generally been impeded by the limited availability of high quality training data. We have developed two novel data augmentation techniques which generate new training examples from existing ones. First, we combine the linguistic principles of hypernym transitivity and intersective modifier-noun composition to generate additional pairs of vectors, such as “small dog - dog” or “small dog - animal”, for which a hypernymy relationship can be assumed. Second, we use generative adversarial networks (GANs) to generate pairs of vectors for which the hypernymy relation can also be assumed. We furthermore present two complementary strategies for extending an existing dataset by leveraging linguistic resources such as WordNet. Using an evaluation across 3 different datasets for hypernymy detection and 2 different vector spaces, we demonstrate that both of the proposed automatic data augmentation and dataset extension strategies substantially improve classifier performance.

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Representing Syntax and Composition with Geometric Transformations
Lorenzo Bertolini | Julie Weeds | David Weir | Qiwei Peng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021